World Hydrogen Energy System Authority
Short title: Hydrogen System
The peoples of the world are striving to increase their living standards, and thus – in addition to adopting all appropriate conservation measures – must increase their energy consumption.
The main sources at present are fossil fuels, i.e., coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
Fossil fuels are finite in amount and will eventually be depleted, with the downturn in production expected to start early in the next century.
It is prudent to plan and begin conversion to the next energy system by making use of the remaining fossil fuel sources (and also other conventional energy sources, such as wood, etc.) to achieve a smooth change-over, which is expected to be completely accomplished within 50 years or less.
It is also prudent to preserve the diminishing supplies of the fossil fuels for non-fuel applications (such as lubricants, synthetic fibers, and plastics), for which there may be no substitute.
The combustion products of fossil fuels are causing growing damage to our Biosphere (the only known domain in the Universe to be supportive of life) and especially to its living components through pollution, acid rain, CO2 and carcinogens.
The combustion products and their harmful effects do not stop at the national boundaries.
It is of the utmost importance to keep the Biosphere clean and fit for life, and hence the energy sources and energy carriers as clean as possible.
There exist clean primary energy sources, which however are not as convenient to utilize as fossil fuels in general (e.g., in transportation).
There is a need for two types of energy carriers, viz., electricity (meeting about one-quarter of the demand at the consumer end) and fuel (meeting about three-quarters of the demand).
There exists technology for the production (by any and all primary energy sources) and utilization of the environmentally compatible and efficient fuel energy carrier, i.e., hydrogen.
Hydrogen would enable all the new primary energy sources to be presented to the consumer in the best utilizable form.
The resulting energy system, the Hydrogen Energy System, would save the Biosphere and life from extinction, would be universal and permanent, and would provide humankind with abundant energy for economic progress and higher quality of life.
1. This third session of the provisional World Parliament hereby creates the WORLD HYDROGEN ENERGY SYSTEM AUTHORITY (WHESA).
2. TASKS: WHESA shall administrate various tasks to replace the existing fossil fuel system with the Hydrogen Energy System.
2.1 FIRST TASK: EDUCATION OF PEOPLE AND DECISION MAKERS. WHESA will organize short-courses, seminars, symposia and conferences in order to educate the people and the decision makers around the world about the benefits of the World Hydrogen Energy System vis-à-vis the fossil fuel system. In these meetings, WHESA shall expound the efficiency, environmental and economical advantages of the Hydrogen Energy System, as compared with the fossil fuel system.
2.2 SECOND TASK: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. WHESA shall open the World Hydrogen Energy Research Center (WHERC) In this center researchers from various countries will work on efficient and economical conversion of primary energy sources, such as solar, biomass, wind, waves, tides, ocean, thermal and geothermal, to hydrogen. WHERC shall do the following:
2.2.1 Research and evaluate various methods of hydrogen production, such as electrolytic, photolytic, thermal, thermal-chemical, thermo-electro-chemical, and hybrid methods.
2.2.2. Investigate various methods of storage of gaseous and liquid hydrogen.
2.2.3. Determine and develop the best ways of storage for different applications.
2.2.4. Investigate transmission and distribution of gaseous and liquid hydrogen.
2.2.5. Determine and develop the best ways for different applications.
2.2.6. Research into utilization of hydrogen in residential, commercial, utility, industry and transportation sectors.
2.2.7. Research on safety and environmental effects of hydrogen, as well as on development of materials for hydrogen using systems.
2.3 THIRD TASK: DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS. WHESA shall assist in establishing Hydrogen Energy System Demonstration Projects wherever they are feasible. WHESA shall help – through the expertise WHESA develops in WHERC – countries that express interest in establishing hydrogen energy system demonstration projects. WHESA shall provide technology transfer.
2.4 FOURTH TASK: CONVERSION TO HYDROGEN. WHESA shall assist each country to convert from the present fossil fuel system to the hydrogen energy system in a smooth, orderly and economically expedient way.
Energy production and utilization equipment, plants and/or transportation will be changed to hydrogen if they have to be replaced and/or new ones are needed due to increase in demand, or because of dire necessity to save the environment quickly. WHESA, together with other agencies of the Earth Federation, shall complete the transition within 50 years or less.
2.5. FIFTH TASK: ENVIRONMENTAL SURCHARGE. WHESA will campaign for each country of the world to comply with a uniform environmental surcharge legislation to be enacted by the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament, so that the products (energy carriers and otherwise) are responsible for the harm they cause to the biosphere and to life, directly or through carrier waste or manufacture; that the price of each product would includes an environmental surcharge to cover the product’s environmental damage.
Appropriate world authorities shall utilize the environmental surcharge to undo the damage to the Biosphere, life and structures, to cover related medical, restoration and relief expenses, and to compensate the victims. This Act specifically authorizes the Ministry of World Resources to collect an environmental surcharge.
2.6. This Act does not limit the WHESA tasks to those defined herein. WHESA may define and develop other tasks as needed.
3. ADMINISTRATION: WHESA administration will consist of the following:
3.1. The Presidium or provisional World Presidium shall make nominations for the WHESA Minister. The provisional World Parliament or World Parliament shall then elect the Minister of WHESA. If the first operational stage has not yet been reached, then the term for the Minister is three years, and the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament may re-elect the Minister for successive terms.
3.2. If the first operational stage has not yet been reached, or if the Civil Service Administration has not yet established the civil service lists, the Minister of WHESA may temporarily appoint someone, subject to approval of the Presidium shall nominate a WHESA Administrator. When lists are available, then the Minister of WHESA shall nominate from the list, and the nomination requires approval from the Presidium.
3.3. General Directors for the tasks enumerated under Article 2 of this Act, to be appointed by the Administrator and approved by the Executive Cabinet, and
3.4. Technical and administration personnel to be proposed by each General Director and approved by the administrator. If the seniority lists of the Civil Service Administration are in place, the Senior Administrator will use these in placements.
4. FUNDING: Initially, WHESA will be activated as soon as the equivalent of a minimum of &350,000 (approximately ten million 1987 U.S. dollars) is obtained from energy companies and/or philanthropic organizations, or national or sub-national governments, or as soon as the world economic system is capable of allocating the adequate funds. After activation, the WHESA budget will be derived as follows:
4.1. One quarter of one per cent of GNP of each country ratifying the Earth Constitution.
4.2. Two and a half per cent of the net income of each energy company, including energy mining, transportation, storing processing (to fuel and/or electricity), and marketing companies – both public and private that take part in the transformation process.
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Adopted as world statutory code, World Legislative Act Number 10
by the third session of the provisional World Parliament, convened in conformance with Article 19 of the Earth Constitution, at Miami Beach, Florida, United States of America, in June 1987. Amendments were adopted at the eighth (2004) session of the Parliament.
Attested: Dr. Terence P. Amerasinghe, Barrister-at-Law, Secretary (1st & 3rd sessions)
Provisional World Parliament
Eugenia Almand, JD, Secretary
Provisional World Parliament