To inaugurate enabling legislation for the World Boundaries and Elections Administration, including provisions for a Global Peoples Assembly
Short title: Elections Act
Whereas, the People of Earth have great need for the electoral processes and popular decision making processes as defined in the Earth Constitution Article 2. Section 9; Article 4 Sections 5 & 7; Article 5., Section C.;
Whereas, the Earth Constitution has adequate provisions for both representative democracy and for direct democracy; defined in Article 8, Section C., for a World Boundaries and Elections Administration to meet this need;
Whereas, the People of Earth are already working on the processes for decision making in numerous non-governmental and para-governmental organizations around the world;
This eighth session of the provisional World Parliament, meeting in August 2004 at Gomptinagar, City Montessori School, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, hereby adopts this Act to inaugurate enabling legislation for the World Boundaries and Elections Administration (WBEA), including provisions for a Global Peoples Assembly.
1. Basic Administrative Structure
As per the Earth Constitution, Article 8 C-2., a Cabinet Minister and a Senior Administrator, or a Vice President and a Senior Administrator, together with a World Boundaries and Elections Commission, direct the World Boundaries and Elections Administration. One commissioner each from ten World Electoral and Administrative Magna-Regions, plus the Cabinet Minister and the Senior Administrator composes the commission. As soon as the first operative stage is reached, the House of Counsellors shall nominate the Commissioners from qualified members of a Global Peoples Assembly, and then the World Presidium may appoint from the nominations for five year terms. During the stage of provisional world government, the Global Peoples Assembly may make the nominations directly. The Presidium can then appoint nominees for three year terms, or until the next session of provisional World Parliament, whichever is longer. Commissioners may serve consecutive terms.
2. Administrative Functions. The functions of the World Boundaries and Elections Administration (WBEA) include the following, in conformance with the Earth Constitution, Article 8, C-1:
2.01. To define the boundaries for the basic World Electoral and Administrative Districts, the World Electoral and Administrative Regions and Magna-Regions, and the Continental Divisions, for submission to the World Parliament for approval by legislative action.
2.02. To make periodic adjustments every ten or five years, as needed, of the boundaries for the World Electoral and Administrative Districts, the World Electoral and Administrative Regions and Magna-Regions, and of the Continental Divisions, subject to approval by the World Parliament.
2.03. To define the detailed procedures for the nomination and election of Members of the World Parliament to the House of Peoples and to the House of Counsellors, subject to approval by the World Parliament.
2.04. To conduct the elections for Members of the World Parliament to the House of Peoples and to the House of Counsellors.
2.05. Before each World Parliamentary Election, to prepare Voters’ Information Booklets which shall summarize major current public issues, and shall list each candidate for elective office together with standard information about each candidate, and give space for each candidate to state respective views on the defined major issues as well as on any other major issue of choice;
Voter Information Booklets shall include information on any initiatives or referendums which are to be voted upon; to distribute the Voter’s Information Booklets for each World Electoral District, or suitable group of Districts;
The WBEA shall seek the advice of the Institute on Governmental Procedures and World Problems, the Agency for Research and Planning, and the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment in preparing the booklets.
2.06. To define the rules for world political parties and political representation, subject to approval by the World Parliament, and subject to review and recommendations of the World Ombudsmus.
2.07. To define the detailed procedures for legislative initiative and referendum by the Citizens of Earth, and to conduct voting on supra-national or global initiatives and referendums in conjunction with world parliamentary elections.
2.08. To conduct plebiscites when requested by other Organs of the World Government, and to make recommendations for the settlement of boundary disputes.
2.09. To conduct a global census every five years, and to prepare and maintain complete demographic analyses for Earth.
In addition to pre-stipulated functions, the World Boundaries and Elections Administration shall perform the following duties:
2.10. To create and maintain a world electoral registry, to manage the electoral process.
2.11. To directly stimulate and promote popular participation in world government affairs on a worldwide basis. In particular, to support a Global Peoples Assembly (GPA), to include peoples committees and peoples councils on a wide variety of different issues. The Global Peoples Assembly may include all citizens of Earth who express a desire to participate in the Assembly in conformance with world law.
2.12. To eventually construct and maintain dedicated facilities for the Global Peoples Assembly (GPA) in every Administrative District on Earth, with facilities of ample capacity for all world citizens projected to participate.
2.13. To directly stimulate and promote a diverse range of approaches to the world decision making processes, to include Internet, radio, television, and other technology decision making systems in the overall decision processes.
The provisional World Parliament adopts the Newcombe Plan for World Districts and Regions. directing the Commission for Legislative Review to make adjustments as necessary to bring the plan up to date and within constitutional limits. The provisional World Parliament recommends the World Parliament to immediately review the districting plan, particularly if the districting is not brought fully within constitutional limits by the first operative stage of world government. (The Newcombe Plan is presented as an addendum to this legislation.)
To make measured elections, a voter registry is necessary.
The voter registry shall include identifying information and a three part number. One number part consisting of four digits shall identify the voter’s primary electoral district of residence. A second part consisting of six digits (00.00.00) shall record the birth date, in day.month.year Common Era format. The third number part consisting of twelve digits is randomly generated from among available registry numbers.
The World Service Authority, together with the World Citizens Registry, shall operate the Registry. As the World Service Authority is already operating with a numbered registry system, the World Citizen Registry shall make recommendations to the World Service Authority and to the WBEA Commission for integrating the two systems within the World Electoral and Boundaries Administration. The World Service Authority shall report to the WBEA regarding its operations, including integration process. The budget proposal shall include a budget proposal in Earth credits for upgrading its system to the sixteen digit format. The budget proposal shall include projected itemized costs in Earth credits for registering the following numbers of citizens:
4.1. 2,500,000………(FEC, Art 17, Sec C1a)
4.2. 301,000,000 (FEC, Art 17, Sec C1b)
4.3. 600,000,000……….FEC, Art 17, Sec C1c)
4.4. 3,000,000,000 (FEC, Art 17, Sec D1)
4.5. 5,500,000,000………(FEC, Art 17, Sec E1)
4.6. 7,000,000,000 (approximately Earth
population in five years’ time?)
5. Nomination and Election of Members to the World Parliament
The World Boundaries and Elections Commission (WBEC) shall plan details for the nomination and election of delegate Members of the World Parliament to the House of Peoples and to the House of Counsellors. To facilitate this process, the WBEC shall request electoral procedure proposals from the Global Peoples Assembly and from peoples committees, peoples councils and other groups promoting world parliament and world electoral processes. The WBEC may adjust submitted electoral procedure proposals as appropriate.
Upon thorough definition, the WBEC shall submit the plans to the provisional World Parliament and World Parliament.
This Act requires a solemn undertaking in support of the Earth Constitution from any world citizen who will be a candidate in any campaign for the House of Peoples or House of Counsellors.
6. Conducting Elections
The World Boundaries and Elections Administration shall conduct measured elections as soon as feasible. To facilitate this process, the World Boundaries and Elections Commission may request coordination assistance from the Global Peoples Assembly and from Peoples Committees, Peoples Councils and other groups promoting world parliament and world electoral processes.
As soon as feasible, the World Boundaries and Elections Commission shall begin allocations, in Earth credit or Earth currency, from its budget for the purpose of conducting measured elections.
7. Voter Information Office
This Act establishes the Voter Information Office to include not only campaign positions of candidates, but also printed versions of world legislation, the Earth Constitution, world governmental reports and bulletins, projections, commentaries, Institute for Economic Democracy literature and other materials. The Office may include a section dedicated for political parties, though the WBEA does not finance the printing costs for participating parties. Participating parties will have a quota of space in the party section, according to conditions decided by the WBEA.
The first office of the Voter Information Office is in Lucknow, India. The WBEC may establish Magna-Regional offices in Washington, D.C., in USA and in Tokyo, Japan, or in other locations, as conditions permit. As soon as feasible, the WBEC will establish a Regional Office within each World Region and a District Office within each World District.
8. Rules for Political Parties
Political parties that wish to participate in the Electoral Process must ratify the Earth Constitution. The WBEA shall determine further rules of procedure for political parties, subject to approval by the World Parliament.
9. Campaign Limits – Candidates may receive campaign contributions only from world citizens (natural persons) or from the public electoral campaign budget of the WBEA. Campaign contributions are limited to one thousand Earth Hours of credits or currency (&1000) per person contributing. The WBEA may match campaign contributions in accordance with its budget and rules established by the WBEA and approved by the World Parliament.
10. Legislative Initiatives
Initiatives are electoral processes that have originated directed from the People. By initiative signed by at least 200,000 citizens, the People may initiate World Parliamentary debate directly. The People turn in the signed initiative to the World Boundaries and Elections Commission. The WBEC presents the initiative at the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament. Initiatives shall conform to the basic professional legislative drafting guidelines adopted by the provisional World Parliament. This Act recommends world citizens to ensure conformity with guidelines before circulating initiative for citizens’ signatures, as the WBEC may discard ambiguous or incomprehensible initiatives.
11. Legislative Referendums
World Referendums are electoral processes that have originated from the World Parliament, but that are voted upon directly by the People. During the provisional stage of world government and the first operative stage of world government, the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament may conduct referendums, or until an operative electoral voter registry is established in a World Electoral and Administrative District, the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament may conduct referendums outside of the general elections and measured voting process. As soon as feasible, world citizens will vote upon legislative referendums during general elections, or in special election, within a measurable vote.
World Plebiscites are electoral processes that have originated either directly from the People, or from the provisional World Parliament or from the World Parliament. World Plebiscites are voted upon by the People. However, the WBEA may conduct World Plebiscites at sub-jurisdictional levels, as defined in the Earth Constitution.
13. Census. During the provisional stage of world government, the electoral process may operate using census data acquired before provisional world government. Sources may include national government census figures, local government census figures, population research reports or reports from other sources, such as United Nations Population Fund. As soon as feasible after the beginning of the first operative stage of world government, the World Boundaries and Elections Commission shall submit a collaborative action plan to the World Parliament, including proposed means to conduct the periodic 5 year census.
14. Global Peoples Assembly (GPA)
The Global Peoples Assembly is a global para-governmental agency and process, comprising both non-governmental and governmental functions, emerging to improve democratic process at a global level, encouraging popular participation in making world citizen decisions.
14.1 Functions of the Global Peoples Assembly, its subsidiary and partner organizations, include the following:
14.1.1. to endorse, promote or reject endorsement of candidates to any House of the Provisional World Parliament or World Parliament. Endorsement or rejection of endorsement by the GPA is not binding on candidates, but may carry significant political weight;
14.1.2. to recommend that the World Parliament deliberate specified issues or subjects of legislation;
14.1.3. to generate necessary world citizens Initiatives and Plebiscites for election by the People of Earth in measured world elections conducted by the World Boundaries and Elections Administration, if the Global Peoples Assembly does not perceive recommendations to be adequate;
14.1.4. to discuss pending decisions and past decisions of the World Parliament;
14.1.5. to discuss pending decisions and past decision of the People via world initiatives, world referendums and world plebiscites;
14.1.6. to form citizens commissions to investigate electoral procedures, systems or subsystems that may have been subverted by faulty or fraudulent electronic count or other means, or the secrecy of which may have been compromised. (The individuals vote is secret, but not the actual counting of votes, which is a public function.); and
14.1.7. to discuss and review its own functioning, making corrections as necessary to ensure broad popular participation in the world political process.
14.2 Membership and Partner Organizations
14.2.1. Participating members. A Delegate’s Council shall register any person as a participating member who declares sympathy with the goals of GPAM if the registering person has participated within the last two years in a Local Peoples Assembly (LPA), Regional Peoples Assembly (RPA), or Global Peoples Assembly GPA), or other GPAM activity. This includes participation in an endorsed or co-sponsored event or activity. This entitles a participating member to join in GPAM debates and to vote on GPAM issues in person or by mail or electronic means. Participants in a GPAM directed activity not responding to two consecutive requests to vote or debate over two or more weeks are determined temporarily inactive for purposes of quorum rules for that activity.
14.2.2. Contributing members. Participating members may become contributing members via a GPAM fiscal agent, and may register as a member of an LPA, RPA, GPA or GPAM itself. Participating members are automatically contributing members of higher level assemblies and of GPAM. The Delegates Council policy may determine the division of participating membership dues among these entities (LPA, RPA, GPA or GPAM.)
14.2.3. Partner Organizations. A partner organization is a non-profit entity, such as a national or international non-governmental (NGO), community-based organization, professional or labour organization, or governmental entity in sympathy with the goals of GPAM. A participating organization is a partner organization which periodically hosts an assembly to choose delegates and conduct other GPAM business. Partner organizations are encouraged to become participating organizations by hosting assemblies.
14.3. Delegates Council.
14.3.1. Initial Arrangements
Volunteers shall organize the first Delegates Council. All groups that the first Delegates Council recognizes as peoples assemblies or possible affiliates are entitled to one delegate in the next higher jurisdictional level of the Peoples Assembly. The Delegates Council shall make recommendations as to Delegates Council size, specific responsibilities of Delegates, Delegates Council manner of replacement, and Delegates’ compensation, if any, and submit this to the vote of the plenary of the Global Peoples Assembly. The Delegates Council shall have representation from at least all twenty World Electoral and Administrative Regions of Earth, though to begin, it may have less.
14.3.2. Liaisons and Delegates
Numbers of Delegates. This Act encourages broad participation in the Global Peoples Assembly. This Act recommends the Credentials Committee to find additional adjacent space and electronically link the assembly, if feasible.
If there are too many delegates to function effectively or equitably, due to facility capacity restrictions, the Credentials Committee may reduce the number of delegates to a particular assembly by only accepting delegates from regional assemblies, or from regional groupings of assemblies, and from larger assemblies or populations:
18.104.22.168. A smaller assembly with at least 10 participating members may elect or nominate 1 delegate to attend a larger assembly, at least 100 participating, then 2 delegates, at least 1000 participating then 3 delegates, etc. This method may be modified as needed by replacing “10” by any number x, so that an assembly with at least xn participating members has n delegates.
22.214.171.124. An assembly may use a method for extra delegates based on area population size, say 1 extra delegate for a population over 100,000, 2 for over 1,000,000, 3 for over 10,000,000, etc.
126.96.36.199. An assembly may elect or nominate delegates based on financial support, for example, the assembly may nominate m extra delegates for at least ym contributing members, by choosing an appropriate number y.
188.8.131.52. Assemblies or organizations may designate participating members as liaisons to other assemblies and organizations. Delegates are liaisons who are designated to sit on the Delegates Council by their assemblies or non-participating partner organizations. This Act requires that an executive or governing council delegate of a partner organization obtain respective authorization from the partner organization, but need not officially represent the views of that organization. The Delegates Council will request alternates or replacements for inactive delegates
184.108.40.206. Partner organizations may designate a single delegate, but partner delegates shall constitute less than 50% of all delegates. In order to accomplish this, or for other purposes this Act adopts a uniform method to allow large assemblies to have more than one delegate.
220.127.116.11. Subject to availability of resources, GPAM may subsidize travel and other expenses for delegates who request financial aid, according to need and past or potential level of participation.
14.3.3. Voting. The Delegates Council and other groups of the Global Peoples Assembly will seek consensus, with 2/3 of those present required for decisions on resolutions, internal initiatives, policy, Charter and Bylaws. Consensus and electoral decisions take effect immediately, but if a ratification vote fails at a future GPAM Plenary, the respective assembly must revoke or change the decision as advised. By simple majority vote, Delegates, liaisons or partner members may submit proposed decisions, along with pro and con statements, to the participating members for an advisory vote. Other contested decisions, including elections and procedural decisions, are by majority vote.
Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, latest edition is the basic manual for procedure of the Global Peoples Assembly and the Delegates Council, unless the Delegates Council or Global Peoples Assembly decides otherwise. To ease access to Robert’s Rules, the Delegates Council or Global Peoples Assembly may decide to use the 1917 edition of Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, from public domain.
The Delegates Council shall meet at GPAs, and shall strive to meet in person at least annually and electronically at least quarterly. For voting purposes, a quorum shall be 25% of all delegates.
The Delegates Council shall elect officers to conduct business and organize meetings. These officers shall include President, Vice-President, Secretary, and Treasurer, who serve for up to two terms of two years each. The Delegates Council make create other leadership positions and groups as needed, with duties and terms of office.
14.3.6. Credentials Committee. The Delegates Council shall form a Credentials Committee to compile a list of qualified assemblies and partner organizations and to maintain a database of participating members and of current delegates, and alternates. This committee shall also solicit potential assemblies and partner organizations and issue qualification guidelines with approval of the Delegates Council. The Credentials Committee shall determine the activity of participating members for quorum purposes.
The Credentials Committee shall form a list of recommended candidates to serve in elections to the House of Peoples and to the Hour of Counsellors in general world government elections. The Credentials Committee may elaborate commentary on World Parliament candidates coming from the World Districts and Regional Assemblies.
A candidate for World Parliament may run for office without endorsement from the Credentials Committee, if all qualifications are met, as defined in the Earth Constitution.
14.3.7. Internal Initiatives. An internal initiative is a initiative emerging from the Global Peoples Assembly and affecting the Global Peoples Assembly. An assembly that sponsors an internal initiative may circulate its proposal to the active GPAM participants for feedback and revision by that assembly. 10% of the participating membership must endorse the final version of this internal initiative before it goes to the Delegates Council. The Delegates Council must then act on the initiative, possibly after amendments, with acceptance requiring a 2/3 vote of those present. If acceptance fails, the Delegates Council will refer the internal initiative, with pro and con statements, to a GPAM Plenary for deliberation and an up or down 2/3 vote of those present. Internal Initiatives must be consistent with the Earth Constitution.
14.4. GPAM Plenary Sessions
14.4.1. Voting on Policy. Simple majority vote of the Global Peoples Assembly Plenary decides resolutions, general policy decisions, internal initiatives, and changes to Bylaws or Charter, as submitted by the Delegates Council, The Delegates Council may attempt to rephrase failed motions for reconsideration at a future Global Peoples Assembly Plenary. A GPAM Plenary may be an in-person session at a GPA, or it may be conducted by the Delegates Council with mail or electronic ballot from participating members. A Plenary may also propose a resolution, policy decision, or Bylaw or Charter Change for consideration by the Delegates Council.
14.4.2. Voting for Candidates.
The “Borda Count” is recognized by mathematical authorities as less subject to unexpected results or to manipulation than most other voting methods. First each voter ranks all the candidates (or choices) from highest to lowest preference, possibly ranking some equally. The least preferred candidate gets no votes, the next candidate gets 1 vote, the next 2 votes, etc. For example, if there are 5 candidates, then the candidates ranked most to least preferred, get 4,3,2,1,0 votes respectively. The candidate with the most votes wins.
If there are n candidates, the most preferred candidate gets n-1 votes, the next n-2 votes, etc. If m positions are to be filled, then the highest m recipients of votes are elected. If several candidates are ranked equally, then each gets an equal number of votes. Thus if the 2nd and 3rd candidates are ranked equally in the 5 candidate example, the voting allocation would be 4, 2.5, 2.5, 1, 0.
If the Delegates Council has forwarded nominees for multiple at-large offices, then election is by a Borda count. However, the Plenary Session has the option, by majority vote, of rejecting all candidates for individual offices or of slates of candidates for multiple openings.
14.4.3. Other Procedures. Procedural issues not addressed by the Bylaws will be governed by Robert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, latest edition.
14.5. Financial Arrangements
14.5.1. Fiscal Agents. GPAM shall initially affiliate with fiscal agents in different countries or regions for handling membership fees and possibly other tasks, such as fundraising or communications. A fiscal agent is a non-profit organization that receives a percentage of the membership fees and other monies raised, to be negotiated according to agreed tasks.
GPAM may form its own entities to handle financial matters, consistent with world legislation.
15. Dedicated Facilities for the Global Peoples Assemblies
The Global Peoples Assemblies may meet in rented or offered facilities, as necessary. The provisional World Parliament recommends the World Parliament to construct dedicated facilities, such as a Magna-Forum in each Magna-Region (10 Magna Regions). This Act recommends a Magna-Forum facility with capacity to host 25,000 people during the first operative stage of World Government, and beyond. If the people by plebiscite in a magna-region decide that larger facilities are necessary, the Agencies of the Integrative Complex will study the environmental and social impact of larger facilities’ requirements, to assess the optimum location for the larger facility. If there are not significant environmental or social impact problems projected by the larger facility, the World Parliament may allocate the funds for the larger facility. Global equity is a determining factor in the decision for placement of forums. Therefore, if one magna-region has a larger magna-forum built, this may be a precedent for the building of larger magna-forum facilities in other magna-regions.
This Act recommends the World Parliament to construct a Regional-Forum facility in each World Region, with capacity to host 5 to 10,000 people during the first operative stage of world government, and 25,000 people during the second operative stage and full operative stage of world government.
This Act recommends World Parliament to construct a District Forum facility with capacity to host 1000 people during the provisional stage of world government, 5,000 people during the first operative stage of world government, 10,000 people during the second operative stage of world government, and 25,000 people during the full operative stage of World Government.
Each constructed forum facility shall have full access for disabled persons.
Each constructed forum facility shall have a crèche with professional child development personnel, for attending infants and children up to 14 years of age, while parents or custodians are attending the Global Peoples Assembly.
16. Internet Programs
This Act promotes the development of Internet programs and projects to create a better and stronger world democratic process. Internet programs include wikis, non-governmental organization web pages, para-governmental web pages, other web pages, skypes, list serves, e-groups, electronic polling mechanisms, and instantaneous translation services.
17. Radio and Television
This Act authorizes the Agency for Research and Planning to assign public radio and television frequencies for each District, Region and other jurisdictional levels of the Earth Federation. The frequencies assigned shall include dedicated frequencies for broadcast of each District, Region and other jurisdictional level of the Global Peoples Assembly.
18. Other Technology systems may supplement.
To reach world citizens who live in rural areas, under conditions of poverty, or who otherwise do not have access to Internet, television or radio, the WBEA shall expend a portion of its budget to reach and include participation from world citizens who otherwise would not be able to participate. This may include other technology systems, such as paper dissemination of voter information booklets. The WBEA shall recommend a budget portion in its first proposed budgets. Upcoming sessions of the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament may determine the exact portions.
19. Children’s Participation
This Act commends the Children’s World Parliament and the World Parliament of Youth. This Act recognizes the great importance for the education of youth in civic responsibility.
The World Boundaries and Elections Commission shall include budgetary provisions for youth participation and parliamentary training in the annual budget of the WBEA.
20. The Syntegrity Project
On a semi-annual basis, or as often as feasible, the WBEA shall sponsor syntegrations to analyze weaknesses in the structure of the WBEA system and sub-systems, to find recommendations for improvement, and for other purposes. WBEA shall pay for syntegrations from its operating budget.
The World Boundaries and Elections Commission shall prepare an annual budget to be submitted to the sessions of the provisional World Parliament and World Parliament, including proposals for operation of each program of the WBEA and in particular an elections budget. The provisional World Parliament and World Parliament may make adjustments to budgetary requests, to efficiently strengthen the overall program for Earth Federation. Upon budget approval by the provisional World Parliament or World Parliament, the Central Bank of the World Treasury shall disburse funds monthly to the WBEA for its operations.
The WBEA shall make budget requests and report expenditures in terms of Earth credits or Earth currency.
The World Boundaries and Elections Administration shall make an annual report to the World Parliament and to the Presidium.
23. Further Provisions
The World Parliament may at any time define further the responsibilities, functioning and organization of the World Boundaries and Elections Administration, consistent with the provisions of Article VIII and other provisions of the Earth Constitution.
Addendum to Elections Act
World Districts and Regions
by Hanna Newcombe
Under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, (FEC) approved at Innsbruck in 1977, the world is to be divided into 1000 World Electoral and Administrative Districts, with equal population, “within the limits of plus or minus ten percent” (FEC, Article 2, Item 4). Contiguous Districts are then to be combined “to compose a total of 20 World Electoral and Administrative Regions” for various purposes (FEC, Article 2, Item 5). The Regions are no longer restricted to having equal populations or equal numbers of Districts; geographic, cultural, ecological, and other factors are to be taken into consideration as well. However, the boundaries of the Regions should not cross the boundaries of the Districts, i.e., no District is to be split by an interregional boundary. Contiguous regions are then grouped in pairs to make up 10 Magna-Regions. These in turn are grouped to compose 5 Continental Regions.
This paper is an initial attempt to divide the world into 1000 districts, 20 regions, 10 magna-regions, and 5 continents, along the lines specified in the FEC. However, there are differences. We have succeeded in specifying only 966 districts in our scheme, although further refinements and greater willingness to cross existing national boundaries (if population data can be found) could get the number of districts up to the required 1000. Secondly, we did try to keep the regions, magna-regions and continents at least approximately equal in population (FEC, Article 2, Item 4), since otherwise there would be foreseeable complaints on the part of the larger units, whose people would be under-represented. At the continental level, it would obviously not be fair to have Europe as one continent and Asia as another, when so many more people live in Asia. Asia certainly qualifies as more than one continent, even culturally. And thirdly, we did not find it possible, in this preliminary attempt, to satisfy the stipulation of “plus or minus 10%” for the 1000 districts; we simply tried to keep their populations within the range from 2,500,000 and 5,000,000, and even stepped outside of this range in some cases.
Our source of population data was The World Encyclopedia of the Nations (5 volumes, Wiley, New York, 1976), which gives mainly 1975 data. In some cases (e.g., India, China, Brazil, USA, USSR [Russian Federation nations]) it gives the population of provinces, which is why we used this source in preference to others; but for some other countries, even federations like Nigeria or FR Germany [western Germany], such breakdown by provinces is not given. In such cases we had to limit ourselves to stating only the number of parts (districts) into which the country is to be divided. Many of the provinces of China and India need further subdivision, since they are as big as, e.g., France; and we lack the figures for doing this, also.
To finish this project, we shall need the collaboration of people in different parts of the world. If persons from Nigeria or India, for example, could provide more detailed figures for the districting of their own countries, we could then, as a team, progress from this very preliminary model to a more elaborate one. I therefore request such collaboration.
The division of the world into 1000 districts was attempted before by Ian Hackett (“The Spring of Civilization”, Hunt Barnard, Aylesbury, U.K.,1973). This was used as the basis of our own effort; e.g., the enumeration of districts follows Hackett’s ordering, and some names of provinces are taken from his list. However, his list does not report population figures, and his divisions give too much weight to small islands and territories, such as Pacific and Caribbean islands, Andorra, San Marino and Liechtenstein, and not enough to provinces of China, India and Indonesia. Hackett has 921 districts.
[The following creation of Districts is currently listed according to 1975 census figures. For this reason, one should presume that 2005 or 2010 census figures will be substantially different. Eds.]
That the above districting plan is based on 1975 census figures, there are already grounds for redistricting. The World Elections Commission shall attempt to better apportion the district lines according to population to more closely meet the 10% guideline as established by the Earth Constitution, as well as to better reflect national changes since the mid-1970’s. Districting and redistricting guidelines are already provided in the Earth Constitution, particularly in FEC, Article 2, Item 4 through 9; Article 4, Item 5, 6., 39.; Article 5. Section A.9.& A.11., Section 5-C.; Article 8, Sec A & Sec. C.; Article 19., Sec B-2; as well as indirect guidelines in Article 17.
This provisional districting plan is authorized under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. The World Elections Commission and World Boundaries and Elections Administration shall recommend modifications to this provisional plan in conformance with Article 19, Section B-2 of the Earth Constitution. The world public is invited to advise the Commission and Administration, particularly through the Global Peoples Assembly.
[Editor’s note: The provisional World Parliament adopted the Newcombe Plan with direction to the Commission for Legislative Review to make adjustments as necessary to bring the plan up to date and within constitutional limits (Elections Act WLA#29.3.). With this in mind, the Commission immediately began study of the document, finding further that the district population proportions are roughly of a constitutional magnitude, but that adjustments will need to be made to meet the 10% limit of population difference. Part of this challenge can be address by adjusting district lines. Part may be adjusted by combining and recombining districts. (Please forgive any omission of states in formation since the Newcombe Plan was submitted. Any ommissions will be corrected as soon as possible.)
Since adoption, one of the first challenges to the Newcombe Plan was the enumeration of Regions, Magna-Regions and Continents. Originally, the enumeration gave the first numbers to Northern North America and to Northern Europe. While these areas have been the residence of some of the finest minds and leaders of the Earth Federation movement, they are by no means the areas where the impetus and popular support for Earth Federation has its strongest roots. While the enumeration was not intended to reflect the popular support for the Earth Federation, the voice of the people has been clear. It would be improper not to consider the connotations of giving Northern North America and Northern Europe the first numbers of the World Regions. It would also be improper not to consider the connotations of giving the last numbers to those Regions where our base has the strongest popular support and the greatest potential–the very regions where the greatest exploitations and oppressions have been suffered.
Based upon the strong popular response regarding the regional enumeration, the Commission for Legislative Review is strongly recommending and motioning that the Regional enumeration itself be inverted from the original Newcombe Plan. The Regions themselves have been provisionally determined by statute. However, the enumeration is in fact not a matter of substantial significance, but rather that of potential connotation only. As the Commission for Legislative Review is authorized to publish work of recommending legislative changes, the recommended enumeration is included in the following Newcombe / Hackett tables of World Regions, Magna-Regions and Continental Divisions]:
|World Districts table from World Legislative Act #29 in separate window||World Magna-Regions & World Continents table in separate window||China, a populous land, has many world districts and so, many regions. .PDF map file of China World Regions|
|World Regions table from World Legislative Act #29 in separate window||.pdf file of World Regions Map||India, a populous land, has many world districts and so, many regions. .PDF map file of India World Regions|
In most of the divisions into districts, we still follow the national boundaries, i.e. districts do not overlap existing nations. There is no stipulation in the FEC that this should be so. The reason for doing it this way in this preliminary attempt is that the population data available are given by nations in most sources, and so we are constricted to thinking in nation-state terms, even if ideologically we have surmounted this. In a future, more definitive districting of the world, we recommend that the population data should first be recast in a non-national form. This would require a major effort, but it may be worthwhile, in helping to give us a truly global outlook. The sacredness of the nation-state view of the world should be challenged on every possible occasion.
Sometimes the allocation of disputed territories raises seemingly hot questions: Should we assign Cyprus to Greece or to Turkey? The Falklands to Argentina or Britain? The West Bank to Israel or to Jordan? (Editor’s note: Palestine is assigned to Palestine as per the agreement of 1967, which was confirmed by the fifth session of the provisional World Parliament.) Then we remember that we are not any longer deciding the boundaries of sovereign states, but only the division into electoral and administrative districts, and that the decisions therefore lose some of their present burning importance. We wish it to be understood that, in the decisions we made here on some of these disputed territories, we followed no particular ideology or prejudice on the merits of the case by the opposing sides, by merely followed geographical convenience in obtaining an equal division by population, as much as possible.
On the other hand, we did try to delineate some territories (districts) for nations which do not at the present time have a state of their own: the Basques, the Kurds, the Baluchis, the Armenians, and so on. We did lack the population data in some cases to do this in a definitive fashion, but this could be done more thoroughly later.
Boundaries were crossed sometimes even at the district level; e.g., placing Alaska with parts of Canada, or Greenland and Iceland with other parts of Canada. This happens more often at higher levels, of course. At the level of regions, India and China were divided, because each is too large to fit into a region. If a district has 4 million people on the average, and a region has 50 districts, or 200 million people, India and China exceed this.
Europe did not come together even as a continent, but ended up split into 3 parts, one going with the Americas, one with Africa, and one with Eurasia. Likewise, neither China nor India fit entirely within a conventional continental framework. This is reminiscent of the tri-partition of Poland in the 19th century, but in this context, need not be regarded as a political disaster, since the whole world is united at the planetary level. Southern Europe does have interests in common with North Africa and the Middle East, situated as they are around the Mediterranean; Western and Northern Europe traditionally look West across the Atlantic.
May the structure delineated here be the harbinger of an emerging cooperative united world.
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The Elections Act was adopted by the Eighth session of the provisional World Parliament
on 12 August 2004, at City Montessori School, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, convened in conformance with the
Constitution for the Federation of Earth
Attested : Eugenia Almand, JD, Secretary
Provisional World Parliament