Worldwide Nuclear Fission
Power Generation Plant Closure
Short Title: Nuclear Closure
Whereas nuclear power generation poses the risks of the further production of vast quantities of unnatural radionuclides, many of which have historically been and currently continue to be licentiously dumped into the biosphere;
Whereas, the projection of scientists not on a nuclear payroll has been that the past and current release of nuclear wastes might have already surpassed that necessary for the entire destruction of the vertebrate genome, together with genomes of many non-vertebrate life forms with which vertebrates share an interdependent relation;
Whereas the real purpose of the nuclear power generation plants has been evidently a means for international military powers to impose military oppression on the people of Earth through the production of plutonium, uranium and heavy hydrogen fuel for nuclear weapons, and for the creation of a worldwide hostage-like situation for civilians vis-a-vis the military powers imposing the world nuclear state;
Whereas the world nuclear state, as embodied in the non-viable agencies of the United Nations Organization, have not provided for protection of the biosphere and society from the abuse of world nuclear power;
Whereas, the current Emergency situation of Earth with the nuclear focal point of the uncontrolled triple-meltdown of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power generation plant far exceeds the fiscal and organizational capacity of not only the Tokyo Electric Power Company, but also far exceeds the fiscal capacity of Japan and all the Japanese people working in concert, and even far exceeds the capacity of the international agencies of atomic power and even exceeds the capacities of all the militaries of Earth, and even the full capacities of those militaries combined with the full capacities of all the world’s private financing capacities (such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Bank for International Settlements, World Trade Organization, etc.) working together if they could;
Whereas world federal financing, as defined in the Earth Constitution, and as further delineated in the world legislation of the Provisional World Parliament provides the adequate public fiscal apparatus to pay for any contingency whatsoever, making money no object in the orchestrated human response to the combined emergency situations of the world nuclear state within the midst of the world climate breakdown and other world crises;
Whereas the world response of the Earth Federation is organic and holographic in its very nature, as compared to the status quo, which has been and continues to be pyramidal and fragmented in organization;
And though the people of Earth might already be too late for avoiding universal vertebrate extinction in the near term from releases of nuclear wastes and other anthropogenic environmental damages that have already been made;
The World Parliament, in 13th session, hereby directs the closure of all nuclear fission power generation plants worldwide.
1. Earth Federation initiates and directs closure and on-site decommissioning of all nuclear fission plants, commencing immediately and implementing fully as soon as feasible.
1.1. Operators of nuclear plants currently offline retain their reactors off-line.
1.2. Operators of nuclear plants currently undergoing a decommissioning process shall adjust their decommissioning process to comply with the regulations of this act.
1.3. Operators must not recycle radioactive materials.
1.4. Operators must not transfer radioactive materials off-site, unless the Emergency Earth Rescue Administration specifically approves the transfer.
1.5. Operators must not create, fill or otherwise use central repositories for radioactive materials, unless the central repository is specifically approved by both the EERA and the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment (ATEA).
1.6. Plants undergoing a decommissioning process shall review their decommissioning plan to bring their decommission work into compliance with this act.
1.7. Operators of nuclear plants that were not previously scheduled for this universal closure shall turn off all nuclear reactors as soon as feasible, and shall submit draft closure schedules to the Emergency Earth Rescue Administration within six months of the enactment of this closure act.
1.8. Ratepayers and operators are entitled to assistance in closure in conformance with World Legislative Act Number 50 for the Nuclear Power Plant Decommission Fund, subject to the conditions described in Article 9 of this Closure Act.
2. Earth Federation agencies shall coordinate with scientists, government officials and civil society to strengthen ongoing environmental assessments of the world nuclear state, together with environmental assessments of the interactions of nuclear conditions with other environmental concerns, such as those of climate change.
3. The Emergency Earth Rescue Administration (EERA) defined in World Legislative Act #6, shall
orchestrate with other agencies of the Earth Federation, particularly with the World Environment Ministry, the World Disarmament Agency and the Earth Federation Funding Corporation, in order to coordinate the effort without unnecessary redundancies and inefficiencies.
4. Agencies shall coordinate to de-commission nuclear plants on site without transfer for centralization of wastes and without re-cycling of radioactivated materials. The World Disarmament Agency shall work with the EERA for carrying out procedures for the perpetual on-site sequestration of nuclear materials.
5. Exceptions on transfers
The World Ministry of Environment together with the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment (ATEA) may authorize exceptions to the on-site sequestration of nuclear materials when local conditions preclude any stage in the sequestration process, such as when rising sea water or subsiding seacoast does not allow on-site sequestration to continue. In these cases of exception, the World Environment Ministry and EERA shall transfer to only to the closest location reasonably secure from the problem requiring transfer, considering and budgeting all factors, such as necessity for relocation of civilians, proximity to arable land, proximity to potable aquifers, proximity to shoreline and safety from other environmental dangers.
6. Removal of spent fuel from spent fuel pools
The EERA and WDA working in concert shall work to dry cask spent fuels from spent fuel storage ponds worldwide.
Dry casking of spent fuel shall be completed on site, unless exceptions are required as defined in Article 5 of this Act.
Dry casks shall remain on site, unless transfer is authorized by the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment and the Ministry of Environment.
The Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment shall study the state of dry casks and whatever structures in which dry casks are stored. The ATEA shall propose budgets for the replacement of spent dry casks and for the perpetual care of the spent dry casks.
If a replacement system is authorized by the ATEA, the Ministry of Environment, the Enforcement System and the World Disarmament Agency, then the EERA may introduce the new system, subject to the approval and further regulation of the World Parliament.
7. Evacuation of residents from contaminated areas
The EERA, working together with other agencies of Earth Fedeation and national and local agencies, shall provide for the Evacuation of residents from contaminated areas. EERA shall assess nuclear and social situations. EERA shall establish a housing authority. EERA shall provide assistance for keeping families together when families so desire, as well as provide compensation to both families transferred as well as to communities receiving transferrees.
7. 1. Compensation goes to residents leaving contaminated areas
7.2. Compensation goes to communities receiving evacuees (the local city, or next higher jurisdiction if the re-settlement is into an unincorporated area.)
7.3. Specific evacuation cases and conditions are addressed in article 10 of this act.
8. Perpetual security of world nuclear sites
The Presidium is responsible to coordinate for the following world agencies to provide for the perpetual security of world nuclear sites: World Disarmament Agency, the World Environment Agency, and agencies of the Integrative Complex.
The World Disarmament Agency together with the Enforcement System and agencies of the Integrative Complex shall regularly determine the conditions for the perpetual security of dry casks in use, dry cask contents and spent dry casks. The Integrative Complex together with the Enforcement System shall propose a budget for the perpetual security of the dry cask system.
The Enforcement System and the World Civil Service Administration shall submit annual budget for security personnel to adequately protect nuclear sites from security risks of theft, accident, vandalism, war or any other problem that creates danger of breaching the sequestration of the nuclear materials.
9. Regenerative power systems and conservation to replace consumptive power systems.
Cursory study of the work of Michael Faraday, Albert Einstein, Nikola Tesla and other physicists and inventors (Newman, Bedini, and others) clearly show that the mechanical strength of a motor to produce rotation is a function of the voltage and the number of turns of wire, rather than a function of the current of the motor.
The World Parliament discourages the industrial practice of charging for current. The World Bench for Civil Cases and the World Bench for Public Cases shall judge in favor of efficient power systems that generate little or no waste heat. Upon the commencement of the first operative stage of Earth Federation, the World Court may judge against plaintiffs demanding compensation for failure to provide current in metered current-based systems. World Court Benches may judge against defendants charging for current upon the commencement of the first operative stage of world federation. This act enjoins both providers and consumers of metered current-based systems to refrain from attempting to continue metered current-based electrical systems. The court shall consider whether either plaintiffs or defendents are attempting to use systems that exploit fiscal charges for metered current. This act advises both consumers and providers of metered current-based electrical service systems to plan ahead now for transition to efficient electrical systems that do not require metered current for determining prices and costs.
10. Special cases
10.001. Fukushima case
10.001.1. The Japanese government, in cooperation with the Earth Federation, may recommend relocation to people within the lands most heavily affected by the 11 March 2011 tsunami meltdown of nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi power generation plant.
(Refer to appendix maps of more heavily contaminated areas: Y. Hayakawa, 2013)
The Funding Corporation shall budget reasonable funds for assessing and eventually assuming the cost for relocations away from the contaminated areas. Assessment costs shall include not only the travel expenses of people, but also costs to establish new living locations beyond that of refugee camping. Equal funds shall be assigned to both relocated individuals, as well as to the local community (city, or otherwise prefecture in the case of unincorporated relocation.). Relocations may be either within or outside of Japan.
Until such time as receiving locations are identified and approved, Japan, in cooperation with the EERA, may establish refugee camps for evacuees outside of the more heavily contaminated zones as designated by the agencies of the Earth Federation. Refugee camp security shall be set up such that ingress and egress from camps is facilitated and without red tape.
10.001.2. Team of Independent Scientific Experts
The Emergency Earth Rescue Administration shall employ a team of independent scientific experts in the field of nuclear engineering, nuclear physiology and other fields as the team determines necessary.
10.001.2.1. Functions of the team of independent Scientific Experts
The function of the team include the following:
1. The team shall direct operations for the safest effective approaches to the reduction of criticality and nuclear contamination coming from the Fukushima Dai-ichi facility.
2. The team may initiate orders for any further evacuations, on the condition that Japan government or the Earth Federation may also direct further evacuation based on additional scientific assessments of the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment.
3. Additional functions of the team are to give consultation regarding other nuclear plants that are undergoing shutdown and decommissioning.
10.001.2.2. Duration of the team
The team of Independent Scientific Experts shall continue to operate as long as is necessary until the conditions of nuclear emergency have come to an end, as measured by the return of the major affected areas to a status of arable lands and potable waters, together with the fair certainty that critical nuclear reactions will not return to the Fukushima Dai-ichi facility and its underlying bedrocks, as measured by the team of experts as well as by the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment and the Ministry of Environment.
10.001.2.3. Restrictions on team membership
Team members and their immediate family members must not maintain ties to the nuclear industry outside of their relation as members of the team, other than pensioners for former employees in nuclear industry. Team members and their immediate family members must not retain employment, board membership or stockholdership in any nuclear utility. Team members and their immediate family members must not hold membership or employment with the International Atomic Energy Agency or any agency or organization the mission of which is to promote nuclear power generation.
10.001.3. Post-meltdown semi-containment
The Emergency Earth Rescue Administration and Team of Independent Experts shall consider all means of semi-containment and reduction of criticality, including controlled dispersal of fuel rods, zeolite barriers, vitrification, and thermal barriers. The team of independent experts must not consider monetary costs of technological solutions, but exclusively biospheric, environmental and human costs.
10.001.4. Radiation monitoring and education
The Earth Federation Funding Corporation shall contract for the development and production of personal waterproof time-and-location-tracking radiation monitors that are capable of detecting alpha, beta and gamma radiation. If all three detector versions are not immediately available, the Funding Corporation shall contract for the design and implementation as soon as possible. Radiation monitors shall be first assigned to individuals in the most affected areas around Fukushima and Honshu. This includes infants, children and adults. Adults shall affirm support for the Earth Constitution as a condition of receiving their personal detectors. The Funding Corporation shall attempt to contract with a capable manufacturer or manufacturers to strengthen the capacity of manufacturers. Manufacturers shall affirm support for the Earth Constitution and world legislation as a condition of contract. Price support shall find the prices that generate brisk sales. Quality audit process by the manufacturer, by Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment, as well as independent studies shall ensure quality.
10.001.5. Food importation
The people, farmers, merchants and the governments will measure the radiological contamination of food. Earth Federation agencies shall work with importers to assure adequate importation of foods to replace dangerously contaminated foods, particularly throughout Honshu, but wherever this need arises. The Emergency Earth Rescue Administration shall provide for removal and sequestration of foods spoiled because of radiation content.
10.001.6. Healthcare provisions (Reserved)
10.002. Other Emergencies (Reserved)
The Earth Federation assumes the authority for the public finance of the closure and perpetual care of the closed nuclear facilities and nuclear wastes. Governments, utilities, and people accepting assistance from the Earth Federation shall accept the phased transition to publicly financed operation in the Earth Federation unit of credit and currency (the Earth Hour). Contracts for services from this act using the Earth Federation Funding Corporation shall note that the Earth Federation shall only remit payments for loans in Earth Hours for hard or soft currency received. The Funding Corporation may spend any currency it has available for the contracting of services.
The Presidium or the Ways and Means Committee (Finance Committee) shall submit budgeting provisions for this act to the World Parliament together with the submission of the general operating budget for the Earth Federation. To assist local authorities and peoples, the directorate of the Funding Corporation may set floating exchange rates with local currencies to help people
12. Quality Audit
The Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment shall establish a non-exclusive quality audit procedure to monitor the efficiency and safety of the nuclear closure procedures and programs. Additionally and independently, the World Ombudsmus shall conduct quality audit of the nuclear closure procedures and programs. Civil society organizations may conduct their own quality audit of the nuclear procedures and programs. The Enforcement System shall develop procedures for permit of civil society representative entry to restricted access contaminated lands, waters, any restricted access airspace, and nuclear facilities, according to conditions the Enforcement System designs to regulate the risks.
13. Integrating roles of world agencies and international agencies
The Emergency Earth Rescue Administration shall conduct its operations in conformance with the Nuclear Contamination Act (WLA35) and the Nuclear Weapons Dismantling Procedure (WLA34). Insofar as International Agencies do not interfere with world legislation and with the programs and procedures of this act, the EERA and the World Disarmament Agency (WDA) may cooperate with International Agencies, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament