The Mystery of No-thing


This massive rock,

Silence of the ages revealed—

Unsayable, unknown, immediate,

Immediacy beyond words.

While bird-song penetrates to the depths of being,

Thrill of existence, shudder of recognition—

No bird seen, no concept formed.

The emptiness of silence and bird-song,

Revealed in the deep recesses of the forest-wild.

Wilderness embracing silence and song.


My human senses encounter a familiar forest,

Of sights and sounds.

My human reason names and orders,

The elements of forest as rock, bird, trees, flora, ecosystem,

But senses and reason fail here—

Fail in moments of the whole,

Encounter with the depths of bird-song and silence.


In immediacy and wilderness,

Silence and shudder of recognition,

Opens a third eye—

The eye of emptiness,

Embraced by mystery, unperceived, unreasoned,

Yet complete, somehow fulfilled, somehow this living ground of

Unspeakable Mystery enwraps our being.


And opens heart and mind to the Real,

The mystery of Existence,

Not concept, not sensorium,


Rounding the trinity of our being,

This fullness-emptiness of completion, unspeakable finality,

Ushers us into that sacred space,

Embraced by the Mystery of No-thing.

Our Cosmic Journey and the Earth Constitution

Sages from all the great world’s traditions,

Have pondered the profound mystery,

Of being human,

The deep mystery of being alive,

Of being aware,

Of being part of this astonishing cosmos–

The primal miracle of existence,

Flared forth in this vast cosmic process,

For 14 billion years—evolving,

And blossoming into awareness,  

On our beautiful planet Earth,

Our home made for life,

Made for joy,

Made for the fullness of existence.

* * * * * * * * * *

All things evolve,

Cosmos, planets, and all persons,

Change with time,

And we emerged as human beings,

From primordial roots,

Only yesterday on this cosmic scale.

Yet a miracle was born with us,

Awareness of the mystery was born with us–

God, humanity, cosmos,

A wonderous trio intertwined,

From the very foundations of the world.

Ancient sacred texts declared,

“Let us make man in our image and likeness,”

Ancient texts declared, “The world is one family,”

And ancient sages declared that we should love one another.

* * * * * * * * * *

But human freedom included power,

Power to enslave, dominate, exploit,

Power to divide you from me.

Kings and conquerors grasped at power,

Rivers of blood flowed through,

The corridors of history,

To satisfy the lust for power and division–

Your culture verses my culture,

Your religion versus my religion,

Your race versus my race,

Your nation versus my nation.

They created boundaries on the Earth

And boundaries in the minds,

Of peoples everywhere.

Confusing boundaries with reality,

Rivers of blood flowed forth,

From the boundaries,

With their lust for power and division.

* * * * * * * * * *

Boundary people ignored the ancient sacred text declaring–

“The nameless is the beginning of the ten thousand things.”

They confused the finger pointing at the moon for the moon,

Imprisoned in boxes of their own making,

They went to war defending their boxes.

Their religious boxes, their racial boxes, their national boxes.

Today we see our precious Earth from space–

No boundary lines shining on that jewel–

No divisions, no boxes, no mine and thine,

Only a blue sphere floating in empty space,

One planet, one humanity, one divine mystery,

One beautiful oasis of for all of life.

A planet evolved from the darkness of cold space,

Into warmth and beauty and life and hope.

* * * * * * * * * *

Many men and women joined in this awareness,

To write the Constitution for the Federation of Earth

To place the boxes and the boundaries,

In proper perspective,

To love the Earth as our cosmic home,

To respect the dignity of all persons,

And other living creatures,

On our precious Earth that belongs to all.

The Earth Constitution,

Gives us back our home,

Restores the human family,

And points to peace on Earth.

With freedom for the fulness of life,

With a peace that embraces justice for all peoples,

With a holism of ecological wisdom and concern,

The Earth Constitution gives back to all,

for the first time on a planetary scale,

A planet filled with hope and love.

The dream of the ancient sacred texts,

That the world is one family,

Made in one image,

An unspeakable mystery beyond the boxes and the boundaries,

Asks for all of us today,

To evolve beyond our boxes and our boundaries,

Into the unity in diversity,

Of the Earth constitution solution.

Poetry – A Contention

26 July 2003


“This is no country for old men,”

       sings my friend,

              that greatest of poets,

All the summer long they sing,

       the young in one another’s arms

              whatever is begotten, born, and dies,

So my friend the poet,

       with an eye upon eternity,

             sets ship to sail for the holy city of Byzantium.

I have harkened not his call,

       to board that ship,

              to where the gold-wrought artifice,

Of poetry, art, and literature reside,

       to where the collective memory of the past,

              is anthologized for drowsy students,

Or bought to decorate the halls of power,

       between the Renaissance and the Blue Period,

              where stolen wealth craves blessings on its deeds.

This country of fish, flesh, and fowl,

       in this respect is also not my country,

              friend poet,

But it is the country of your widening gyre,

       where the center does not hold,

              and the blood-dimmed tied is loosed upon the world,

It is the country of widening hunger,

       of planetary misery, unnatural death,

              of weapons, and endless war.


Who will encounter that rough beast?

       that slinks through town and village,

              the young in one another’s arms oblivious,

Who will mount a crusade to Bethlehem,

       confront the infidel in his lair,

              and retrieve the holy grail of history?

Do you too, friend poet, lack all conviction,

       that you wish to escape,

              to the holy city of Byzantium?

Does the hour of the beast,

       come round at last,

              portent a fatalism beyond hope?

Where are you, friend poet,

       when there is need of vehicles,

               for the word and hope of God?

Surely you have read your Blake,

       surely you know that God exists

              and lives only through the human heart.

This is no country for old men,

       for the ceremony of innocence is downed,

               by the Lords of the Earth,

Who summon that rough beast,

       with greed, injustice,

              and endless war.


Does a poet have no role to play,

       in this summer land of birth and death,

              where the innocent in one another’s arms,

Are inundated by the blood-dimmed tide,

       digested by the Lords of Earth,

              and severed from the God of history?

Who is the voice of hope,

       in this land of birth and death,

              which is the land of history?

Of struggle and hope,

       of reflection and redemption,

              of miracle and ecstatic life,

You should have read your Lawrence,

       for whatever the dead or unborn may know,

              they cannot know this miracle,

Of being alive and potent in the flesh,

       this once only, the impact,

              of this miraculous, shining cosmos!

The rough beast slouches toward Bethlehem,

       but it need not be born,

              for the great hope of history,

Exists and lives,

       through the human heart,

              thy kingdom come!

This is precisely the country for old men,

       my poet friend,

              for we are not in one another’s arms,

And we are freed,

       like the prophets of old,

              to listen, and to speak,

We can hear the crawling of the beast,

       moving toward Bethlehem,

              and discern the blood-dimmed tide,

We can hear the call of God,

       and like the navi of old,

              we speak because we hear,

We must not set sail,

       for the holy city of Byzantium,

              we belong here.


This is our country,

       for deeper than whatever is begotten, born, or dies,

              lie the depths of history,

We are the voice of the kingdom,

        the voice of the great hope,

               for mercy, justice, and redemption,

Do poets have no function,

       but to keep a drowsy emperor awake,

              in the holy city of Byzantium?

Set your sails for battle, friend poet,

       in the storms and squalls of history,

              forget that gold-wrought eternity,

Our ship must fly the banner,

       of eternity breaking into history,

              in action for a transformed world,

Old men must wield the helm,

       who hear that voice and heed that call,

              to write the poems of history,

Our ship must sail beneath the banner,

       abreast this blood-dimmed tide,

              of the holy city of Jerusalem.

*     *     *     *     *

World Legislative Act 58

Prohibition on Production, Distribution or Release of Neonictinoid
Short titles: “Neonictinoids” and “Neonictinoid Ban”

As neonictinoid chemical compounds have been linked with the extremely rapid general demise of insect pollinators worldwide, particularly of the genus apis;
As insect pollinators can be shown to support nearly all flowering plants upon which most mammalian life depends;
As the loss of a single generation of pollinators causes the loss of the same generation of dependent populations within that time frame of the first loss; and as also as the human species is dependent upon apis;

This thirteenth session of the Provisional World Parliament adopts this act to ban neonictinoids.

  1. Neonictinoid release is prohibited, effective immediately. This includes release into sealed locations of growth, such as greenhouses, artificial light gardens, as well as into the general environment. Intentional release is a class 7 world felony.
  2. Neonictinoid production is prohibited, effective immediately. Intentional production is a class 7 world felony.
  3. In penal terms, neonictinoid compounds classify as Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). Other activities regarding neonictinoids classify the same as activities regarding WMDs and WMD conveyances as listed in the world penal code and world legislative acts 1 and 13. The Agency for Technical and Environmental Assessment shall compile a list of other chemical compounds which logically would classify as WMDs, together with descriptions of why, and submit the list to the Presidium, Agency for Research and Planning and the World Parliament.
  4. Companies that have manufactured, distributed or applied neonictinoids shall report material inventories and entire distribution and application record available of neonictinoids to the Agency for Technical and Environmental Assessment within 3 months of the adoption of this act by the Provisional World Parliament (House of Counsellors). Companies shall report any changes in inventories while the neonictinoid decomposition is being prepared and implemented. The Agency for Technical and Environmental Assessment may assess fines for failure to meet the schedules for reporting, and may refer cases to enforcement system. Penalties for intentional and inadvertent record destruction are same as for government records in the world penal code.
  5. Companies shall keep neonictinoids safely sequestered from accidental release. Companies shall immediately report incapacity to secure neonictinoids to the Emergency Earth Rescue Administration Office of the Remedies and Corrections Department.
  6. The World Court System is authorized to issue warrants for search and seizure of Neonictinoid material. The Enforcement System is authorized to serve warrants for searches and seizures. The Enforcement System shall comply with safety guidelines provided by agencies of the Integrative Complex and Ministry of Environment.
  7. The Agency for Research and Planning, together with the Agency for Technological and Environmental Assessment shall work together with the Ministry of Environment to plan safe sequestration and timely safe decomposition of all stocks of neonictinoids worldwide. These agencies shall integrate research on additional threats to insect pollinators, such as depleted biospheric oxygen, increased greenhouse gases, biospheric depleted uranium, genetically modified organisms and anthropogenic forced in-breeding.
  8. The Agency for Research and Planning (ARP) shall research means for removing or counteracting the effect of neonictinoids already released into the Earth’s environment. ARP shall report developments, findings and plans at least quarterly to the Presidium, agencies of the Integrative Complex, Ministry of Environment and to the World Parliament.
  9. Earth Federation agencies shall submit proposed budgets and fiscal reports for the implementation of this Act to the Presidium, the Ministry of the Environment, other agencies of the Integrative Complex and the World Parliament. Earth Federation agencies that do not otherwise have funds for the implementation of this act may requisition emergency funding from respective world treasury accounts of the Emergency Earth Rescue Administration.
  10. All agencies of the Integrative Complex and the Ministry of Environment shall submit a quarterly report on progress of the implementation of this act, to include program and policy recommendations for more efficient and safe implementation of the act. The World Parliament encourages immediate reporting of significant discoveries.

Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament

World Legislative Act 57

Collegium of World Legislators Act

Whereas, the “broad functions” of the Earth Federation include establishing a world system without war, a system that protects human rights and the environment, and one that ends poverty , and establishes the Earth as a “safe, healthy and happy home for humanity;”
And whereas, the central responsibility for fulfilling these broad functions is placed by the Earth Constitution on the World Parliament which may well include some 1500 representatives from all over the world and from all walks of life;
And whereas, no special training or specific qualifications are required for any of these representatives in the World Parliament;
And whereas, the Earth Constitution sets up various departments of the World Administration as permanent institutions designed to facilitate the purposes of the Earth Federation and the World Parliament as defined in Article One and grants the Parliament the power to establish additional departments;
And whereas, the Earth Constitution already specifies a Collegium of World Judges to sustain and empower the World Court System;
And whereas, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries humankind has begun to understand the importance of dialogue directed toward mutual understanding, and of nonviolent forms of communication in which language is not used strategically to promote partial ideologies or partial interests but rather communicatively to promote a mutual understanding that is equally in everyone’s interests ;
And whereas, these skills are especially significant for legislators of the World Parliament;

We delegates of the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament , meeting in Lucknow, India, in December 2013, do hereby establish an administrative department of the Earth Federation known as the “Collegium of World Legislators.”

1.Purpose of the Collegium of World Legislators

The Collegium of World Legislators shall be designed to, first, facilitate interaction, communication, and mutual understanding among the members of the World Parliament.  Second, the Collegium shall be designed to inform legislators with respect to the goals, ideals, values, and mechanisms for actualizing these, embodied in the Constitution for the Federation of Earth and the Earth Federation Government.   Third, the Collegium shall be designed to help legislators understand specific issues of concern to the Earth Federation government.

1.1. Participation in this program shall be obligatory for members of the World Parliament and participation shall be required as to how many meetings, how many hours, and  as to such and such a variety of encounters as determined by majority vote of the World Parliament in joint session. 

1.2. These meetings shall be in addition to any specific committee meetings and assignments that are a routine part of the work of World Parliamentarians. 

1.3. All members of the World Parliament shall be considered members of the Collegium of World Legislators.  The organizing department for the Collegium shall be knows as the Legislative Collegium Department (LCD).

2. Basic Administrative Structure

As per the Earth Constitution, the Collegium of World Legislators as an administrative department will be under the direction of the World Executive, and as per section 7.3 shall be headed by a Cabinet Minister and a Senior Administrator, or by a Vice President and a Senior Administrator.

2.1.  As soon as the first operative stage is reached, the House of Counselors shall nominate these officials from qualified members of any of the branches of the Earth Federation government. Then the World Executive Cabinet may appoint administrators of this department from these nominations for five year terms.

2.2.  During the stage of provisional world government, the Provisional World Parliament may make the nominations directly. The Executive Cabinet can then appoint nominees for three year terms, or until the next session of provisional World Parliament, whichever is longer.

2.3.  These administrators may serve consecutive terms. They can be removed, for cause, by either a simple majority vote of the World Executive Cabinet or of the World Parliament.

3. Administrative Functions

3.1.This department is responsible for setting up, staffing, and organizing the functions of the Collegium of World Legislators.

3.2. The department shall recruit experts in nonviolent communications, and/or in conflict resolution, and/or  facilitators in communication directed toward mutual understanding to staff the permanent working organs of the Collegium of World Legislators.   This staff shall be part of the World Civil Service.

4. Permanent Working Organs of the Collegium of World Legislators

4.1. Throughout the year, both while Parliament is in session and when not in session, the functions of the Collegium shall be offered to members of the World Parliament free of charge. 

4.2. Meetings may be located in World Universities or other facilities around the world with a view to maximizing      the ease with which legislators can participate.  The goal is to serve the needs of the legislators in fulfilling this obligation and facilitating development of their communicative awareness and mutual understanding.

4.3. Relatively small interactive meetings shall be facilitated so that members of the World Parliament get to know, understand, and communicate with other members of the Parliament from around the world. 

4.4. Larger meetings shall be offered to legislators directed toward understanding different specific issues, with guest speakers who are experts in those issues, such as specific conflicts, cultural differences, disarmament, environmental problems, human rights issues, etc.

4.5. Larger meetings shall also be organized regarding the goals, values, ideals, and mechanisms for actualizing these, as embodied in the Earth Constitution and the Earth Federation Government.

5. The Legislative Collegium Department may wish to recruit retired legislators who have knowledge, expertise, and willingness to share their experience with incoming, newly elected legislators. Such persons shall be employed under the same conditions as other employees of the department.   

Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament

World Legislative Act 56

Regulations Regarding Crowd Dispersal

Crowd Dispersal Limitations

As the people of Earth have long suffered grievous oppression from tyranny under the pretext of crowd dispersal;

As in countries throughout the world, public officers have repeatedly fired rounds into public crowds including crowds with small children;

As public officers have repeatedly selected civic leaders for close range firing of less-lethal weapons, thereby greatly enhancing the likelihood of permanent injury and death to the civic leaders and to others near the line of fire;

As public officers have repeatedly herded or corralled demonstrators, often conducting the demonstrators into unsafe positions such as busy thoroughfares, or otherwise physically pressed demonstrators into close quarters that are unsafe for peoples’ free movement.

This thirteenth session of the Provisional World Parliament hereby regulates police conduct relating to crowd dispersal.

1. This Act applies to the Earth Federation and all nations and governmental subdivisions of Earth, including to all public security employees. This act also applies to private corporations that contract security services to governments and to all employees of private security firms that have contracts for security services to government. Under the Earth Constitution, militaries are vestigial only and martial law is vestigial only. For simplicity in this act, police officers and police means any of the following, unless specified otherwise: 1.1. Any military officer; 1.2. Any person enlisted to military; 1.3. Any public police officer at any level of government; 1.4. Any officer of any private security firm; 1.5. Any reservist called to action; and 1.6. Any person deputized by the aforementioned persons.

2. This Act prohibits police from effecting crowd dispersal from public properties and from easements adjoining public properties.

3. Police must not fire into crowds, whether bullets are metal, rubber, plastic or otherwise.

4. Concussives are instruments of defense that produce a pressure wave, whether audible or inaudible. Concussives include all acoustical weapons.

5. Police must not use tear gas, other chemical weapons or concussives in general dispersal on crowds. Throwing or mortar launch of tear gas, other chemical weapons or concussives is prohibited. At crowds, police may carry and use tear gas or mild irritants exclusively in hand for self-defense or for defense of civilians (that is, not under orders to discharge).

6. In the case of armed military forces and armed paramilitary forces operating from public properties or easements adjoining public properties, police officers may take steps to identify the forces and the individuals comprising the forces. Police may seek warrants for arrest. Police may arrest persons for cause on public properties or public easements without warrant, if in the officer’s judgment a misdemeanor or felony is being committed or was committed by the person being arrested.

Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament

World Legislative Act 55

Surveillance Limitations Act

Whereas, personal liberty includes a number of fundamental rights bestowed upon the citizens of the Earth Federation by Article 12 of the Earth Constitution,
And whereas, Article 12.18 states guarantees the “right of privacy of person, family and association; prohibition of surveillance as a means of political control,”
We delegates of the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament hereby enact the following world legislation regulating the activity of surveillance by the government of the Earth Federation.

1. Surveillance for purposes of crime prevention or gathering evidence of suspected crimes limits to the office of the World Attorneys General and the Enforcement System, and, for certain purposes defined below, to the World Ombudsmus and the World Disarmament Agency. Surveillance must not be conducted by any other agency or organ of the Earth Federation.

2. The World Attorneys General, Departments of the Enforcement System, and the World Ombudsmus and World Disarmament Agency must not contract out surveillance to private agencies for any reason.

3. General surveillance may take place in public places such as banks, shopping malls, parks, public streets, public waterways, in public transport, or traffic intersections for purposes of public safety and crime prevention.

4. General surveillance must not take place through technology embedded in cell phones, computers, private automobiles, or the monitoring of internet usage.

5. Authorized agencies may conduct general surveillance of the internet and/or worldwide web to identify in those forums criminal activities as defined by the World Parliament.
Surveillance must not be used as a means for political control or intimidation, nor for restricting freedom of expression and thought on the internet.
6. One must not place hidden chips or other devices for purposes of law enforcement monitoring on individual persons without their written knowledge and informed consent.
Partial exception to number 6 is for convicted criminals under the penal system and criminal suspects awaiting trial. The Enforcement System may use ankle bands with the convict or suspect’s knowledge and consent in lieu of more restrictive security measures. The Enforcement System may monitor ankle bands according to penal statutes, procedures, and laws developed by the World Parliament.

7. Other than the partial exception in provision 6., surveillance directed toward the tracking of specific individuals or groups require a warrant specifying the evidence for the suspicion of criminal activity and the specific individuals to be monitored.
7.1. This requirement also applies to the use of undercover police officers.
 7.2. The Investigations Department, World Police or authorized agency shall specify the evidence and identifying information in the warrant request for surveillance. Agencies must not use unrelated information gathered to support additional charges of criminal activity not specified by the warrant.

8. Earth Federation officers must not conduct surveillance of persons in suspects’ homes, apartments, or on individual’s private property in any audio, visual, or other form without a warrant citing the evidence for suspected criminal activity as well as the purposes and limits on the information to be gathered.
This prohibition applies as well to satellite or other airborne surveillance of private residences and specifically does not apply to satellite or other airborne surveillance of corporate properties and vehicles, particularly in the case of industries commonly involved in violation of world law. The prohibition specifically does not apply to satellite or other airborne surveillance of military facilities and vehicles, whether of Earth Federation member nations or non-member nations. The Enforcement System shall keep information discovered confidential in the case of Earth Federation member nations and in the case of nations that are creating a Transition Agreement in cooperation with the Transition Council.

9. The World Ombudsmus may make use of surveillance to monitor the activities of government agents suspected of corruption, especially regarding the violation of human rights. 
Surveillance on grounds of corruption or human rights violation also requires a warrant either from the office of the World Attorneys General or from the World Judiciary.  If an Attorney General is under suspicion the warrant could come from the Court, and visa versa.

10. The Enforcement System shall provide the World Ombudsmus access to any information gathered by the Enforcement System if the World Ombudsmus considers the information might be useful in the protection of human rights. Also, the general public may provide information obtained from observations made in public places to the World Ombudsmus and to the Enforcement System.

11. The World Ombudsmus may use undercover agents to gather information concerning the violation of human rights.
  However, World Ombudsmus agents require a warrant (approved by the Court or an Attorney General) specifying the evidence for the suspicion of human rights violations and the specific individuals to be monitored.

12.1. There is no need for military style secrecy under the Earth Federation, since “war,” the relation to some “enemy” that is considered life or death for entire nations or groups, will no longer exist.  There must, therefore, be no absolute secrecy or lack of transparency for the Police, Ombudsmus, or World Disarmament Agency, regarding their surveillance activities.
The Enforcement System and World Ombudsmus shall conduct normal civil police secrecy or Ombudsmus investigative secrecy with careful record keeping. Investigative secrecy is open to the World Parliament or its appropriate committees.
12.2. If some member of the World Parliament is under surveillance or investigation due to evidence of suspected criminal activity, exceptions to this principle of openness to the World Parliament, the agency issuing the warrant shall specify the evidence of suspected criminal activity.
12.3.  This procedure also applies in case of police investigation of some agent of the World Ombudsmus, or Ombudsmus investigation of some agent of the World Police or World Attorneys General.  The agency issuing the warrant shall specify exceptions to transparency and give reasons for these exceptions.
13.  The World Disarmament Agency, in cooperation with the World Police and the World Ombudsmus, has the authority to use aerial or satellite surveillance to ensure disarmament and prevent rearmament of the planet.
13.1.    The World Parliament will develop further guidelines for public surveillance and warranted private surveillance for securing military disarmament and prevent military rearmament, based in part on recommendations from the Conference of the World Disarmament Agency.
13.2.  In the first operative stage of the Earth Federation, World Disarmament Agency surveillance shall direct solely at the production or possession of weapons of mass destruction.
13.3.   In the second and third stages of world government, World Disarmament Agency surveillance shall directed at the design, production, transport, or possession of all weapons of war as these are defined as criminal activities by the World Parliament.
13.4. World Disarmament Agency surveillance restricts to the purposes stated in this act. 
13.5. If violations regarding banned weapons are suspected, the World Disarmament Agency and Enforcement System shall direct additional surveillance at individual suspects and justify the surveillance by a warrant. 
13.6. If surveillance results in prosecution with regard to illegal design, production, transport, or possession of weapons, only evidence gathered by surveillance performed under a warrant, or unwarranted surveillance from within public space, is admissible as surveillance evidence in World Court.

14. Specifications on oceanic, aerial and satellite public surveillance by the Earth Federation
14.1. In conformance with the Earth Constitution Article 4.25, the Earth Federation has exclusive jurisdiction over all satellites and all vehicles launched into Earth Federation space.
14.2. The World Disarmament Agency (WDA) of the Enforcement System may without warrant develop, deploy and operate superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), gamma wave metal detectors, wave readers and related technology to detect the presence of surface and subsurface metals, including concentrations of hydrogen, which may disclose the location of illegal weapons of mass destruction or concentrations of explosives. The Enforcement System may present evidence collected by these tools without warrant. The World Court shall enter into evidence information collected by these means.

14.3. The World Disarmament Agency may develop, manufacture, deploy and operate unarmed aerial drones, oceanic subsurface drones, and space drones to patrol against the deployment of weapons of mass destruction. However, the WDA must not utilize drones equipped with weapons of mass destruction or any other weapons, including instruments of defense ordinarily appropriate for law enforcement purposes. The purpose of the drones is exclusively for the safe detection and recording of evidence. Drones shall typically include instruments for video and audio recording, as well as the specialized equipment for detecting metals and hydrogen concentrations.

14.4. Except for take-off and landing, aerial drones must not operate below the level of one kilometer above the general surface of the land, excluding depressions in areas of much variation in elevation, unless operating with a warrant provided by the Earth Federation.

14.5. Except for take-off and landing, oceanic surface and subsurface drones must not operate within a distance of twenty kilometers offshore, unless operating with a warrant provided by the Earth Federation, or unless operating within Earth Federation waters, such as within a vital international strait or port, such as the Windward Passage.

14.6. If illegal weapons are visible and recorded on a vehicle on land, in the seas, in the air or in space, no warrant is necessary before enforcement action is taken. The Enforcement Agency shall conserve the record of the presence of visible weapons for presentation to the World Court. As is customary when a felony is in progress, the Enforcement Agency may board a vehicle displaying illegal weapons and conduct further search without warrant. In the case of visible illegal weapons, the offending vehicle need not be outside the national limits before the Enforcement System conducts a warrantless search.

14.7. Warrantless satellite and aerial surveillance as described in this act typically does not reveal privacies of a personal nature for which we are protected under the Earth Constitution Article 12, Bill of Rights of Citizens of Earth. Typically, satellite and aerial surveillance do not reveal intimate personal relations among citizens. For observing inside of buildings and homes in cases of suspected violation of world law, officers of the Enforcement System are required to secure a warrant, as described in World Legislative Act Number 14, the World Security Act.

Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament

World Legislative Act 54

Remedies and Corrections

Whereas Remedies and Corrections is a major department of the Enforcement System under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth;
Whereas Remedies and Correction entails far more than merely the dismantling of weapons of war, but also the subsystem by which the Enforcement System can reduce the likelihood of recidivism and to help prevent the recurrence of world crimes;

The World Parliament adopts this World Legislation for establishing Remedies and Corrections.

1. The Parliament restates the principle of prison as a means of last resort for deterring recidivism. Typically, world convicts are eligible for house arrest, parole or probation using electronic devices such as ankle bracelets. However, the World Courts reserve sentence of incarceration in world federal prisons for certain crimes: For world class felony 3 or above; for crimes of human trafficking, for violent crimes, for certain crimes of a sexual nature, and for crimes against minors, seniors and the disabled.

2. Prohibition of private prisons and forced labor within the Earth Federation.
2.1. Forced labor includes any labor which either is not voluntary, or which in a prison does not pay at least the world minimum wage for its performance.
2.2. Private prisons are prohibited within the Earth Federation. This provision enters into force immediately upon adoption by the Provisional World Parliament.
2.3. Private and public prison operators are to immediately cease forced labor within their power. Violation is subject to the forced labor clause of the World Penal Code.
2.4. In Criminal Case Bench proceedings, the World Court may order companies to reimburse at a just wage people who have been forced to labor in any private prison, or who have otherwise been forced to provide services to a private contractor from within any public prison, retroactive to the time of the start of the first operative stage of Earth Federation.
2.5. In Civil Bench proceedings, the World Court may order companies to reimburse at a just wage people who have been forced to labor in any private prison, or who have otherwise been forced to provide services to a private contractor from within any public prison, retroactive to the time of the adoption of this Act by the Provisional World Parliament.

3. Private operators are to turn private prisons over to the public authorities of the respective jurisdiction for which the private prison was operating.
3.1. Former operators of private prisons are responsible for the safety of prisoners during the transfer of private prison inmates to the public authorities.
3.2. If the private prison inmate was convicted for a crime under the jurisdiction of the Earth Federation, the inmate is eligible for appeal.
3.3. Private prisons shall submit prison and inmate records for review by the World Ombudsmus. Private prisons shall report monthly during the transition process from the private prison system.

4. Member states of the Earth Federation may submit budgets to the World Financial Administration for assistance in the transition from private prisons to public operation.

5.1. For initial member states and World Districts, Earth Federation proclaims full eminent domain over properties owned or leased by private prisons still in operation 6 months from the beginning of the first operative stage.
5.2. For subsequent acceding member states, Earth Federation proclaims full eminent domain over properties owned or leased by private prisons still in operation 60 days from the date of the respective member states’s accession to the Earth Federation. Companies and shareholders receive no compensation in event of missing the deadlines.

6. Financial securities to private prisons is prohibited
6.1. Regarding financial securities that finance private prisons or privately contracted inmate labor in public prisons, the following activities are prohibited: 6.1.1. Advertising; 6.1.2. purchase; 6.1.3. sale; 6.1.4. brokerage; 6.1.5. possession; 6.1.6. holding of securities; and
6.1.7. Borrowing and lending contracts for finance of private prisons and privately contracted labor.
6.2. The world felony class of severity is the same as for the respective activities with other illegal financial securities in the penal code.

7. Paid Volunteer Work Programs.

7.01. In respect of the right of freedom from slavery, labor as part of sentencing is prohibited in the Earth Federation.

7.02. Convicts may seek employment in volunteer work programs in which convicts may work within the same range of salaries as that range for the general public.

7.03. If the sentencing results in a loss of professional licensing, the Court Clerk shall notify the world civil service administration. The convict will be barred from doing professionally-licensed work during the period for which the professional license is suspended.

7.04. Volunteer work performed counts to reduce sentencing at the rate for which the convict is working, at the rate of from one year’s sentence for 2000 hours of work when working satisfactorily at minimum wage, to the rate of one years’ sentence for 500 hours of work when working satisfactorily at maximum wage.
7.05. Agents of the World Ombudsmus shall regularly supervise the Remedies and Corrections operations, including the paid volunteer work programs.
7.06. Convicts have the right to document their work and the right to compensation for any work performed.

7.07. Hazardous duty, such as sanitation-related work, or such as dismantling or handling of explosive or radioactive materials work, shall pay at the maximum wage.

7.08. Twenty-five hours per week is considered full time work. Typically, overtime will not be allowed for convicts. However, when both adult convicts and the Remedies and Corrections department are in prior written agreement for overtime beyond 25 hours per week, time-and-a-half accrues up to 40 hours per week, double-time accrues for 40 hours/week up to 50 hours/week. Over fifty hours per week is not permitted.

7.09. If volunteering for hazardous duty, such as sanitation-related work, dismantling explosives or handling radioactive materials, the Remedies and Corrections department shall provide adequate safety gear and adequate safety training to a standard equaling that required for operations by business and the general public. When volunteering, all training time, and all time gearing up and gearing down measures on the clock. Remedies and Correction shall provide adequate time and conditions for gearing up and gearing down.

7.10. The standards of discipline for the general public employed by the Civil Service Administration is also in effect for convicts in custody of the Remedies and Corrections Department who are engaged in the paid volunteer work program.

7.11. If a convict does not want to participate in a paid volunteer work program, the convict may decline without reprisals. Convicts may document and report suspected reprisals to the World Ombudsmus. If already under contract for a volunteer work program, the convict may discontinue the work program at any time, giving only such adequate notice so as to not create a hazardous condition during the course of a workday. (During a workday, a convict may refuse to participate in a program activity.) However, depending on circumstances, the Remedies and Correction department may determine that refusal is breach of contract, which might result in loss of the particular assignment without immediate guarantee of immediate reassignment.

8. Incarceration Room and Board without Charge. Remedies and Corrections department is to provide room and board to incarcerated convicts not under house arrest without any charge to the convicts. The reason for this is that incarcerated convicts might or might not participate in a paid volunteer work program. Only paid volunteers might have the resources for pay for room and board, and it would be unjust to charge them while not charging non-volunteers. Remedies and Correction shall budget for board, medical and other costs of incarceration and include these in budgets to be submitted to the World Attorneys General Office on a regular basis. For all inmates, Remedies and Correction shall provide at least 2 meters by 3 meters of space with headroom per individual for the sleeping quarters of inmates. Remedies and Correction shall provide in adequate amounts the following:
01. clothing; 02. adequate and nutritious food; 03. medical attention, including preventative medicine, such as prophylactics; 04. regular counseling; 05. lighting; 06. ventilation; 07. warmth; 08. sanitation; 09. bedding; 10. non-digital/non-electronic writing tools and materials; and 11. adequate periods of darkness and quiet. Remedies and correction shall respect dietary regimens on medical and religious grounds, such as for providing nutritious meals to persons who are vegan or vegetarian, etc.

9. Inmate responsibility regarding sanitation. 9.1. Inmates, including juvenile inmates, are expected to cooperate to keep their own sleeping quarters sanitary. Remedies and Correction shall provide inmates with the tools, time and materials to maintain this discipline. Guards’ requirements that inmates maintain their own sanitation of sleeping quarters is not considered forced labor.
9.2. Guards may require inmates to change and handle their own linens and laundries and to bus their own tableware as typical chores without pay.
9.3. However, guards must not require inmates to handle other inmate’s linens, laundries and tablewares, except by prior written voluntary paid contract by the inmate in conformance with Article 7.02 of this Act.

10. Remedies and Corrections is smoke-free. Remedies and Corrections employees, convicts and visitors must neither smoke nor possess cigarettes in prisons, in workstations, or in Remedies and Correction Transit. Remedies and Corrections may provide medical treatment, including counseling, to persons addicted to smoking or other drugs. Violation of the smoke-free rule is an infraction, unless it takes place in a weapons dismantling zone. In a weapons dismantling zone, violation of the smoke-free rule is either a misdemeanor or a world class 1 felony, or greater, depending upon the severity of the violation. There is no immunity regarding this rule.

11. Penal Status and Rights of Suffrage

Convicts, whether incarcerated, in house arrest, on parole or on probation, retain suffrage rights for participation in world general elections. Penal status does not adversely affect the civil right to vote in nominations for world Counsellor, when a person is otherwise eligible to participate in nominations for World Counsellor (such as, for active college students and faculty, etc., in a city of refuge or under modified house arrest).

12. Armed Officers of the Department of Remedies and Corrections

12.1. Regulation. Sheriffs, Deputy Sheriffs, Marshals, Parole and Probation Officers, World Guards, Bailiffs and other Remedies and Enforcement Officers are all subject to the same constitutional regulations as for World Police in Article 10.3 and 10.4 of the Earth Constitution.
Armed officers of the Remedies and Corrections Department must not simultaneously serve as members of the Department of Conflict Resolution, nor in any capacity outside the Enforcement System, whether in the Earth Federation or in the private sector.

12.2. Sheriffs – Office of World District Sheriff and World District Deputy Sheriff is hereby created for monitoring house arrests, paroles and probations. Every five years at general elections, each World Boundaries and Elections Administration District Office shall place on the ballot provisions for five World District Sheriffs and 25 World District Deputy Sheriffs. Nominations will be made based upon election petition with signatures from the residents of the particular World District. Prospective World Deputy Sheriffs and World Sheriffs should have prior residency of at least one year in the World District in which they are to run for election, and they should retain full year residency of that District throughout their term of office. Deputy Sheriffs may run for re-election once. Sheriffs may run for re-election once. Service as a Sheriff or Deputy Sheriff does not count against time that a person may be eligible for service as a World Police Captain or World Police Supervisor. Deputy Sheriffs report to the Sheriff. Sheriffs report to their respective Regional World Attorney General. Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs must not simultaneously hold any other office or employment during their term of office.

12.3. Parole and Probation Officers – The Regional World Attorneys shall hire enough Parole and Probation Officers to work in the World District Sheriffs’ Offices and in the field to enable the Sheriffs and Deputy Sheriffs to perform their duties in a proper manner.

12.4. Marshals—Office of World Marshals is hereby created. World Marshals are responsible for responding to violations of parole or probation when a convict leaves their authorized district or area without Remedies and Corrections Department authorization. Marshals are also responsible for providing secure transit for certain persons in the criminal justice system, such as when a convict is brought from a World Court in one World District to a World Prison or to a Remedies and Corrections Registration Center in a different World District. World Marshals provide secure transport when convicts are transferred within the system. The World Court may also order the Regional World Attorneys to provide Marshals as bodyguards for the safe transport and tracking of witnesses or potential victims if this is not under the purview of the bailiffs. The Regional World Attorneys shall appoint Marshals for each World Region in a number sufficient to optimally serve the Enforcement System and to optimally protect the human rights of the public and of people cased in the System. World Marshals serve as special members of the World Police working in close relation to the Remedies and Corrections Department and without any designated home World District assignment. (This means that World Marshals are not counted in the Command Structure number of World Legislative Act Number 14.15.2.) When Marshals travel between World Regions, Marshals are responsible to the Regional World Attorney of the Region in which the Marshal happens to be.

12.5. Chief Bailiffs and Bailiffs –The World Court and Regional World Attorneys shall cooperate to recruit, hire and supervise chief bailiffs and bailiffs. The World Court and the Regional World Attorneys shall cooperate to budget and report to the World Parliament regarding staffing requirements. Bailiffs are immediately responsible to the World Judges of the Courthouse at which they are stationed, or to their respective Chief Bailiff. Chief Bailiffs and Bailiffs report to both the World Court as well as to the World Attorney Generals Office.

12.6. World Guards – World Guards shall perform their duties at any prison, work camp, or city of refuge where convicts serve sentence.  World Guards serve duty at assigned dismantling sites of weapons of mass destruction. The World Court may assign World Guards perform to monitor convicts under house arrest. The Department of Remedies and Correction shall provide additional specialized training for Guards, in addition to regular world police training.

13. Additional Personnel

13.1. The Regional World Attorneys shall each appoint an Administrator of Remedies and Correction for the Region. The Administrator of Remedies and Corrections shall supervise divisions that shall collaborate to perform the functions of Remedies and Correction. One division is the World Disarmament Agency, with functions described in World Legislative Act Numbers 1 and 34. Another division is the World Administration of Prisons. Each division is responsible to work with the World Civil Service Administration to ensure that it has adequate personnel to properly perform its function.

13.2. Personnel of the Administration of Incarceration

Chief Regional Administrator
Assistant Regional Administrators

13.3. House Arrest Personnel
Regional Administrator of House Arrests;
Assistant Administrators of House Arrest;
House Arrest Technical Supervisors;
House Arrest Technicians;
Technical Repair Supervisors;
Technical Repair Technicians;
House Arrest Monitor Supervisors;
House Arrest Monitors;
Bracelet Technology Engineers;
(In cases of group residential homes)
             World Guards

13.4. Prisons and Cities of Refuge Personnel
The Regional World Attorneys and Regional Administrators of Incarceration shall work with the World Civil Service Administration to obtain personnel to staff the Prisons and Cities of Refuge:

Prison and Cities of Refuge Administrators
(Head Wardens, Assistant Wardens)
Warden Secretary
Sergeant Guards
World Guards
Assistant Warden Secretary
Facility Manager
Facility Assistant Managers
Maintenance Supervisors
Maintenance Personnel, including HVAC
Sanitation Officers
Safety Officer
Procurement Officers
Head Cook
IT Networkers and Administrators

14. Isolation

14.1. Isolation is when an inmate is physically or perceptually removed from being able to communicate interactively with other human beings in a familiar language. Isolation has vocal, visual and tactile components. Other than for assigned reasonable sleep periods (lights out), the loss of any one component is isolation.

Withholding of written communication is a component of isolation. Persons in the criminal justice system shall have continuous access to writing materials. If writing materials are not available, Guards and Guard Supervisors must report this in conformance with the provisions of this Article. Remedies and Corrections shall respect writings as a person’s personal property.

14.2. Guards and Guard Supervisors are responsible to prevent accidental or intentional linguistic isolation in the cases of mono-lingual persons, blind persons or deaf and hard-of-hearing persons.

14.3. Under certain circumstances, Guards or Guard Supervisors may determine that for safety an inmate requires isolation. Guards shall report imposed isolation immediately to their respective Supervisors. Guards and Guard Supervisors shall record all cases and durations of isolation. Guard Supervisors shall report immediately to the World Ombudsmus all cases of isolation exceeding twenty-four hours, and then again all cases that exceed forty-eight hours. The World Ombudsmus shall investigate all cases of isolation that exceed seventy-two hours.

15. Visitations

Remedies and Correction shall arrange for and schedule secure provisions for reasonable visitation by significant others to the convicts in prisons and in cities of refuge. Convicts under house arrest shall arrange their own visitations. Remedies and Corrections shall provide communications for convicts if these are not already available.

16. Phone Service and Consultations

Remedies and Correction shall provide quality telephone service free of charge to persons in detention and to prison inmates. Some conditions apply, including that the
Enforcement System records and monitors all phone calls on R&C phones. Enforcement shall provide notice at the beginning of R&C calls. Advocates shall provide private consultations in person, with provisions ensuring privacy.

17. Special Groupings

17.1. Remedies and Corrections shall provide for special groupings as the need arises for the safety and health of the inmates, with reasonable consideration of the wishes of the inmates, such as separate sections for the following,:
male and female inmate groupings;
lesbian/gay/bi-sexual/transgendered (LGBT);
groupings on linguistic grounds, including for persons who communicate by various sign languages and groups of bilingual pairs;
groupings according to the perceived level of security required to safely house the inmates; and juveniles with their own special groupings.

17.2.  Remedies and Corrections shall schedule, arrange and supervise opportunities for the interaction of groupings when this is socially wholesome.

17.3. Apartheid in Remedies and Corrections (R&C) is not allowed. R&C must not group strictly according to ethnicity or religion, meaning that R&C shall restrict convicts neither to nor from association with other convicts of their own ethnicity or religion.

18. The Juvenile System

18.1. Juveniles in the Criminal Justice System are under protection of the Statute on the Rights of the Child and provisions of the World Bench for Juvenile Cases.
18.2. Remedies and Correction shall provide separate juvenile facilities for juveniles in the criminal justice system.
18.3. In addition to the general provisions for inmates, Remedies and Corrections shall provide incarcerated juveniles with full educational services.
18.4. Insofar as a juvenile’s education progress is not adversely affected, the World Courts or the Remedies and Corrections may allow incarcerated juveniles to work in non-hazardous paid volunteer work programs, at the same rate of pay as for adults providing the same labor, though without eligibility for working more than twenty-five hours per week (no overtime or double-time).
18.5. Remedies and Corrections must not authorize contracts for hazardous work by juveniles.
18.6. Facilities for juveniles shall have provisions for special groupings as described in the Article of this Act  “15. Special Groupings”.
18.7. Adults tried for crimes in Juvenile Court serve any incarceration sentence in the adult system and groupings.

19. Cities of Refuge
Cities of refuge are moderate-security places for convicts who are not ready for parole or probation, but who fit neither into suitability of House Arrest nor of Prison. Cities of refuge shall typically include open spaces for gardens, parkland, educational opportunities and internet interaction. Remedies and Corrections may enclose cities of refuge or not enclose, depending on the level of security required for the residents. Remedies and Corrections may assign a curfew for cities of refuge. On a case-by-case basis, Remedies and Corrections may assign a curfew for individual inmates within the city.  As under House Arrest, the World Court may require sentenced residents of cities of refuge to wear electronic ankle bracelets, and to report for occasional group meetings, trainings and individual check-ups. Sentenced residents of cities of refuge have restriction in civil rights, such as travel restrictions within or without the city, and restrictions on possession and discharge of instruments of defense, which may include permit/registration/display requirements within the city on a case-by-case basis even if the resident is on parole or probation. The specific restrictions on civil rights may vary on a case-by-case basis.

20. House Arrest – World Court may assign house arrest when the convict is not considered dangerous and when the convict has a house to go to. This might be a personal house or it might be a public residential facility. The Court may stipulate conditions on the house arrest. Conditions may include hours during which the convict must be physically present in the house or on the property, including up to 24 hours per day. Conditions may include where and when the convict may travel outside the house. A principle of house arrest is respect of certain civil rights. If a convict is eligible for house arrest, this means that in view of World Court, the convict is ready to uphold civil government, and in the case of adult convicts is trustworthy to have no restriction regarding access or possession of instruments of defense permitted and registered to law enforcement personnel. Like the unconvicted citizen, the convict under house arrest is not required to register, display or obtain permit for legal instruments of defense. If an adult convict is not ready for this responsibility, the World Court shall desist from sentence of house arrest, and shall instead consider the convict for possible placement in a city of refuge, or alternatively in prison.

21. Parole – A principle of parole is partial or full restoration of civil rights. World Court may require a parolee to conditionally wear an electronic ankle bracelet. The parole board may assign travel restrictions and association restrictions upon a parolee.  If a convict is granted parole, this means that in view of Remedies and Correction, the convict is again ready to uphold civil government, and is trustworthy to have no restriction regarding access or possession of instruments of defense permitted and registered to law enforcement personnel. Like the unconvicted citizen, the parolee is not required to register, display or obtain permit for legal instruments of defense. If a convict is not yet ready for this responsibility, the parole board shall postpone or revoke parole. In the case of postponement or revocation of parole, the parole board shall consider a prison inmate for possible transfer to a City of Refuge.

22. Probation – A principle of probation is retention of most civil rights. World Court may require a convict on probation to wear an ankle bracelet. World Court may assign restrictions of travel and association upon a probated convict. If an adult convict is eligible for probation, this means that in view of the World Court, the convict is ready to uphold civil government, and is trustworthy to have no restriction regarding access or possession of instruments of defense permitted and registered to law enforcement personnel. Like the unconvicted citizen, the adult probated convict is not required to register, display or obtain permit for legal instruments of defense. If World Court believes that an adult convict is not ready for this responsibility, the World Court must not probate.

23. Funding of Remedies and Correction is from the General Budget of the World Parliament.

Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament

World Legislative Act 53

Transition Process for National Governments
Joining the Earth Federation

Whereas, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth assumes that all nations joining the Earth Federation will conform to the requirements of the Constitution, including Articles 12 and 13 providing extensive protection of human rights: political, social, and global (i.e. the rights to peace and a protected environment);
And whereas even provisional world government “shall function in accordance with the provisions of this constitution” (Art. 19.E.8);
And whereas Article 14 guarantees to nations entering the Earth Federation (1) full faith and credit to member nations’ public records, acts, and legislation consistent with the several provisions of the Earth Constitution and (2) the right to choose their own internal political, economic, and social systems “consistent with the several provisions of the Constitution;”
And whereas, Article 14 implies that Earth Federation shall bring public acts and legislation not consistent with the Constitution into conformity with the Constitution and that Earth Federation shall bring political, economic, and social systems not consistent with the Constitution into conformity with the Constitution;
And whereas, the principle of nationhood itself is understood by the Constitution to be secondary to the principles of individuals’ human rights and liberties, so that, under Article 17, people may ratify the Constitution directly, independently of the national entities in which they reside;
And whereas, the Constitution provides for three stages in the process of actualization of the Earth Federation to assume its full powers, thereby recognizing a transitional period from the old system of militarized nation-states to the new Earth Federation system;
And whereas, the Constitution specifically recognizes a transitional process for nations joining the Earth Federation in which they turn over only weapons of mass destruction to the World Disarmament Agency during the first operative stage and are not required to finally disband their militaries until the second operative stage in the actualization of the Earth Federation;
And whereas, the distinction between the immediate guarantee of the rights identified in Article 12 and the commitment to actualizing with reasonable speed the rights identified in Article 13 indicates that nearly all nations will be part of a transition process as identified in these features of the Earth Constitution;
And whereas, it may be that today no nation on Earth fully conforms to the Earth Constitution in terms of national military, human rights record, or social requirements for decision-making that truly protects the rights of its citizens;

We delegates at the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament recognize the need to further define and enable the process of transition from the condition of ‘sovereign,’ non-democratic, often militarized nation-states to membership within the Earth Federation.

1. The Federation of Earth is open to all people and nations. The World Executive, World Courts and any other entity must not exclude any nation or group from joining the Earth Federation that has satisfied the criteria specified in Article 17 of the Earth Constitution.
1.1       Nations or groups with political, economic, social systems, or practices not in conformance with the Constitution shall enter into a transitional agreement and begin a process of transition.
1.2       Nations or groups governed by a military, dictator, oligarchy, or other government that does not conform to the Earth Constitution do not have to eliminate this mode of governance immediately but only according to the timed stages in the transitional agreement.

2. Transition Plan
If the first operative stage of the Earth Federation has not yet been activated under the criteria set forth in Article 17, representatives of interested governments shall meet with duly authorized members of the Provisional World Government to develop a detailed transition plan that begins either before ratification or once the nation or a constituent electoral district of that nation has given final ratification to the Earth Constitution.

3. Transition Council
            If the first operative stage of the Earth Federation has already been activated, the appropriate members of the newly elected Presidium and Executive Cabinet shall meet with the Commission for Legislative Review and a Transition Council to review provisional world legislation and institutions already in place that bear on the question of the process of transition for states or electoral districts entering the Earth Federation toward conformity of the Earth Constitution.  The review shall include this legislative act.

4.         In the light of these meetings, the Transition Council shall revisit the plan presented in this legislation. The Transition Council may develop further transitional plans for nations joining the Earth Federation, subject to approval by the World Parliament.

5. Composition of the Transition Council
The Transition Council composes of 30 elected members and 7 ex-officio members:
5.01 The Presidium and Executive Cabinet of the Earth Federation will nominate 30 qualified persons from at least 5 continents and 10 different nations to serve as the Transition Council charged with working with nations in the process of transition to membership in the Earth Federation.
5.02 From these 30 nominees, the World Parliament will elect, by a majority vote of the combined three houses, a council section of 20 members from at least 5 continents and 10 different nations to serve on the Transition Council.
5.03 The Office of the World Ombudsmus shall nominate 10 candidates for the Council, two from each continental division and from at least 5 different nations, of which the Parliament will elect 5.
5.04 The Office of the World Attorney Generals shall nominate 10 candidates for the Council, two from each continental division and from at least 5 different nations, of which the Parliament will elect 5.
5.05 The term of membership for all members on the Transition Council is 5 years with a maximum of 2 consecutive terms.
5.06 The World Parliament shall determine salary for the 30 elected members of the Transition Council.
5.07. Minimum age for persons serving on the Transition Council is 30 years of age, except for ex-officio members, for which the minimum age is 21. Other requirements are credible background experience in the humanities, politics, and law.
5.08. The Transition Council is responsible to the World Parliament and shall make quarterly reports. The Transition Council shall make interim reports when specified by the Parliament.
5.09. An absolute majority vote of the World Parliament in combined session may at any time remove for cause any member of this Council. Original sources shall replace removed members with qualified replacement members within 60 days.
5.10. Members of the Presidium, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, and the Minister for Democratic Procedures are ex-officio members of the Transition Council. As Ex-Officio members with other responsibilities, Presidium members and Ministers need not be present at meetings of the Transition Council, but need be present to vote in Transition Council decisions. The Transition Council shall elect a Vice-President of the Presidium to serve as Chair of the Transition Council. Any other member of the Presidium, the Minister for Exterior Relations of the Earth Federation, or the Minister for Democratic Procedures of the Earth Federation may serve in the Vice-President’s absence or on procedural grounds.

6. Any nation may join the Earth Federation immediately upon satisfying the criteria set forth in Article 17 of the Earth Constitution thereby appointing or electing representatives to the House of Peoples and House of Nations according to the provisions of the Constitution.

7.         Representatives of interested governments and/or representatives of governments that have ratified the Earth Constitution shall meet either collectively or separately with the 30 member Transition Council or designated members of the Council to formulate a process of transition to conformity with the Earth Constitution.
7.1. These meetings may commence earlier, but not later, than within two months after final ratification is completed.
7.2       A state member may agree to a transition plan earlier, but shall formally agree on a specific plan no later than four months after the date of final ratification.
7.3       The Transition Council shall divide this transition process into timed stages by which certain changes shall take place. For example, the Transition Council may expect a member state in the process of transition to amend the state’s respective Constitution, or to adopt or repeal certain state legislation. The Transition Council may expect the disbanding or creation of certain institutions (e.g., secret police, or secret detention centers, or practices within detention centers that violate human rights).  (Note that state constitutional amendment is not required as any prior condition to ratification of the Earth Constitution, and that state constitutional provisions that contradict or appear to impede ratification are annulled by provision 17.1.11 of the Earth Constitution.)
7.4       The conversion shall take place within reasonable and achievable time periods with final say concerning these time periods determined by a majority vote of the Transition Council.
7.5       Although the agreement between the Council and nations will be unique to each nation joining the Federation, depending on its specific economic, political, and social conditions, the Transition Council shall develop a standard model for transition that can serve as a guide and template that can be used to help facilitate the process of reaching a transition agreement with each nation.

8.         Dictators, military rulers, oligarchies, or other governments not in conformance with the rights granted by the Earth Constitution shall devise and implement procedures for transition to appropriate institutions and other protections of human rights conforming to the Earth Constitution with reasonable speed as determined by agreement with the Transition Council.
8.1.      Dictators, military rulers, oligarchies, or other governments not in conformance with the Earth Constitution do not have to give up their power or authority immediately but shall follow the timed arrangements specified in the Transitional Plan.
8.2.      Since the Earth Constitution does not specify that nations participating in the House of Nations be elected democracies, some nations might find suitable forms of government that are not democratically elected, and current leaders of non-democratic nations might retain their positions as long as the human rights of their populations (as specified in Article 12 of the Earth Constitution) become fully protected.
8.3.      In the transition agreement, participating states shall agree to work with the Earth Federation to implement the additional rights specified in Article 13 of the Earth Constitution and to participate in any programs currently in progress to implement the rights guaranteed under Article 13.
8.4.      One purpose of the transition plan is to allow a specifically defined grace period for persons in governments not conforming to the laws of the World Parliament to avoid or mitigate prosecution through reasonable efforts to bring their actions and nations into conformity with world law.  The Transition Council and respective nation shall write specific agreements to this effect into the transition plan.
8.5.      Since individuals are subject to criminal prosecution, not governments collectively, transition plans shall identify individuals responsible for completing certain transition tasks and/or (since individuals occupying posts may change) the occupants of specific functions or offices within the government subject to the transition agreement.
8.6.      The Transition Council, Ombudsmus, and World Attorney Generals are not under requirement to prosecute or indict (for any pre-existing condition or element specified in the transition plan) any democratic or non-democratic rulers who join the Earth Federation and who are implementing the respective transition plan in good faith.
However, this provision enjoins the Transition Council, World Ombudsmus and World Attorneys General to be alert to alleged breaches of the respective transition plan, identifying individual perpetrators and accompanying evidence if breaches are suspected, particularly if breaches involve violation of world law.
8.7.     Leaders and citizens remain subject to the full laws of the Earth Federation as protected by the World Ombudsmus, the World Attorney Generals and Police, and the World Judiciary.
9.         The stages of conversion may differ from country to country depending on the agreements reached between the representatives of the country and the Transition Council, but, in general, the Transition Council shall treat nations with the same requirements and same impartiality, using the standard transition model (described above) as a template.

10.       In coordination with inspection procedures of the World Disarmament Agency, the agreement shall specify a process of inspection and/or confirmation of the agreed upon transitional stages.  The Transition Council may institutionalize the process, drawing upon the resources of existing human rights organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, or the UN High Commission for Human Rights.

11.       The Council will, by 2/3 majority vote, certify that each stage in the agreement has been completed and confirmed. 
11.1. Once all the stages in the plan have been completed and confirmed, the Transition Council has authority to certify countries as fully integrated into the Federation through this vote.
11.2. Failure to meet the agreed upon deadlines will result delays and/or penalties specified in the transitional agreement such as loss of the power to appoint representatives to the House of Nations, or other pre-agreed sanctions, including possible prosecution through the Bench for Public Cases or the bench for Criminal Cases.
11.3. Within the limits of the World Penal Code, the Transition Agreement itself may assess liability to prosecution and severity of penalties within the timed stages specified in the transition plan. Within the limits of the World Penal Code, the World Court may assess or increase these liabilities and severity of penalties if these are not specified in the transition agreement.

12.       Countries not satisfied with the decisions of the Council at any stage may take the issue to the Bench for Human Rights of the World Supreme Court, which may wish to review the procedures and decisions of the Transition Council for this particular case.
12.1. Decisions of the Human Rights Bench of the World Court with regard to any nation that has joined the Earth Federation under a transition agreement are final, unless eligible for review by the Appeals Bench of the World Court. 
12.2. In cases of a judgment against leaders of a nation that has failed to meet the requirements of its transition agreement, the World Court shall return the issue to the Transition Council to devise a new or modified transition plan and set of procedures of inspection or confirmation of that plan.
12.3. If criminal activities or negligence regarding the items specified in the transition plan are uncovered, the World Attorneys General may serve criminal indictments upon specific individuals.
12.4. Such indictments, if served, do not preclude the development of a new or modified transition plan for the country in question.
12.5. If failure to meet transition plan deadlines or other specifications are not evidently due to criminal activity or negligence, the accountable offices of the national government might yet be subject to prosecution in the Bench for Public Cases of the World Court System.

13.       The most important consideration for the Transitional Council shall be the protection of universal human rights in the countries joining the Earth Federation as specified in Articles 12 and 13.
13.1.    The kind of political, economic, or social system may vary from country to country. The Transition Council shall give full faith and credit to the legislation, records, public acts, and judicial proceedings of the countries joining the Earth Federation, as stated in Article 14.
13.2.    The Transition Council, therefore, must not see its responsibility as ideologically promoting certain political, economic, or social systems but rather as protecting the universal human rights of all persons who are members of the Earth Federation, including all of the rights identified in Article 12 (which form the criteria by which completion of the transition process is judged) and willingness to progress on the rights identified in Article 13.
13.3.    It is the responsibility of the Transition Council in conjunction with nations joining the Earth Federation to devise a system of inspection and confirmation to ensure the reality and security of this protection of rights within each country joining the federation.
13.4.    Once a nation has been certified by the Transition Council as fully conforming to the Earth Constitution, the on-going protection of the human rights within that nation are the responsibility of the government of that nation, the World Police, the World Ombudsmus, world citizens and other agencies of the Earth Federation as per the requirements specified within the Earth Constitution.

14.       General military base transitions.
Once the Earth Federation reaches its second operative stage as specified in Article 17, the process of general disarmament shall begin for Earth Federation nations. This process shall also be specified in a transition plan that is coordinated with the World Disarmament Agency and the Transition Council. The plan shall be designed for a successful transition to the rule of civil law and to avoid vulnerability or insecurity for any of the member nations.
14.1. World Legislative Act Number 36, the Guantánamo Bay Directive, addressed the transition of a particular military base. Generally, the Transition Council shall address military bases worldwide under the terms of world legislation and in particular world legislative act numbers 1, 13, 14, 34 and 36. (Nuclear Prohibition, World Peace Act, World Security Act, the Dismantling Procedure and Guantánamo.)
14.2. Whether democratic or not, nations are required to immediately begin dismantling of all nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction as required under world legislation. Nations shall work with the Executive Council of the World Disarmament Agency to ensure compliance. The terms of the disarmament schedule developed between a state, the Executive Council of the World Disarmament Agency, and the Transition Council are parts of the Transition Agreement.
14.3. A nation may request assistance for complying with the Transition Agreement. This may include assistance with civil/criminal law enforcement training for members of the armed forces of the respective nation, with a view toward the demilitarization of that state’s armed forces.
If to deter perceived aggressive threats or instabilities from outside or from within a nation,  the respective  nation expresses a need for more civil police enforcement officers, the Transition Council may schedule an agreement to help increase the number of civil police enforcement officers, either at the world federal level or at any lower jurisdiction within that country. Earth Federation agencies shall comply with Transition Agreements approved by the Transition Council provided the agreements (or respective portions thereof) have not been countermanded by the World Parliament. Civil police enforcement officers at every level are responsible to respect human and civil rights as specified in the Earth Constitution and in world legislation.
Forms of assistance may include the following: 14.3.1. training of states’ residents as world federal officers; 14.3.2. training of state member officers (including military officers, enlisted troops and civil police officers) in world federal law enforcement and cooperation; 14.3.3. assignment of world federal officers for special security assistance; 13.3.4. employment, including salaries for world federal officers; 13.3.5. equipment, including instruments of defense and munitions not prohibited under world legislation; 13.3.6. food, uniforms and other supplies.

14.4. Generally, military bases of military personnel undergo conversion to civil law enforcement. The bases may continue operation as civil police stations where law enforcement officers can receive training and serve duties. According to the transition agreement, military bases may convert either to operate as national civil police stations, as world federal civil police stations, or as a mix.

14.5. Although state members shall disclose weapons of mass destruction immediately, as per world legislative act number 34 (the Dismantling Procedure), troop position and movements, and troop equipment and supplies, including non-prohibited munitions amounts and locations, remains confidential during the transition period, and is only disclosed to world federal authorities or others on a need-to-know basis. The Transition Council must not disclose this information through transition agreements, nor penalize national leaders or national governments for non-disclosure of this information, throughout the first operative stage of Earth Federation.

14.6. No later than 6 months after the attainment of the second operative stage, the Transition Council shall begin plans for drawdown of national military troop levels throughout the Earth Federation. The plans shall include provisions for a concomitant increase in world federal enforcement and World Ombudsmus officers or other public employment (such as the Earth Federation Service Corps) to offset loss of employment by former military personnel. By the end of the second operative stage, all military forces shall have disbanded or converted, as per Earth Constitution Article 17.4.6. At full operative stage, all regulations regarding confidentiality with regard to military troop numbers and positions cease to have effect.

14.7. Generally, financing of military base transitions is similar to the provisions made for the Guantánamo base transition, as described in world legislative act number 36. The Transition Council shall draw up a standard transition model for military base conversions, using the Guantánamo world legislation as a model.

Attested, Eugenia Almand, JD, Provisional World Parliament

World Legislative Act 52

Provisional World Parliament
27th through 31st December 2010, Rabindranath Tagore Auditorium, Bangla Academy, and Sri Aurobindo Bhavan, Calcutta, West Bengal, India

Ministry of Commerce and Trade:
Democracy Enhancement through Corporate Personhood Prohibition Act

Short Title: Corporations Act

Whereas, the fourth broad function of the Earth Federation is “to regulate world trade, communications, transportation, currency, standards, use of world resources, and other global and international processes” (Earth Constitution Article 1.4);
Whereas, specific powers of the Earth Federation include the power to “define and regulate procedures for the nomination and election of members of each house of the World Parliament” (Article 4.7);
Whereas, the Earth Federation is responsible to protect the civil liberties identified in Article 12, including “freedom to vote without duress, and freedom for political organization and campaigning without censorship or recriminations” (Article 12.5);
Whereas, the Earth Federation is responsible to “define standards and promote worldwide improvement in working conditions,” standards of living, healthcare, sanitation, and other basic necessities for a quality of life for world citizens, including protection of the environment and the ending of war (Article 13);
Whereas, the Earth Federation is responsible to “regulate and supervise supra-national trade, industry, corporations, businesses, cartels, professional services” (Article 4.14), and international communications (Article 4.13);
Whereas, in some major nations today, corporations have been granted “legal personhood,” giving them all the rights and privileges of private human persons, with the exception that these corporations cannot die, that individuals operating within the corporation are protected from liability because the corporation itself is considered a collective “person,” that corporations are entities without a conscience mandated solely to make a private profit for their investors, and that corporations, in spite of their vast impact on society, might claim privacy from public scrutiny, and other rights of private persons;
And whereas, within such nations, corporate personhood has given corporations the “free speech” of private persons through which they have used their vast economic resources to colonize and destroy the democratic process, engineering the election of law-makers beholden to the corporations, employing professional lobbyists for their private ends, and using a variety of means to manipulate government in the service of minority private interests;
And whereas, within the world prior to the advent of the Earth Federation, democracy has been compromised nearly everywhere by the wealth and power of the few to colonize governments and communications systems;

The World Parliament adopts this Act to establish the Ministry of Commerce and Trade, by which the World Parliament eliminates the concept of corporate personhood:

Article 1.  
Only natural persons (human beings) have the rights of legal persons as identified in Articles 12 and 13 of the Earth Constitution.

Article 2.  A Ministry of Commerce and Trade is hereby established. The Senior Administrator of the Ministry of Commerce and Trade shall head a Franchise Office of the Ministry of Commerce and Trade.
The regulative jurisdiction of the Earth Federation is defined by Article 4 of the Earth Constitution. Private corporations under the regulative jurisdiction of the Earth Federation shall seek incorporation by the Franchise Office of the Ministry of Commerce and Trade. The Franchise Office shall require a description of a corporation’s legal mandates specifically defining the functions, responsibilities, and modes of operation. The Franchise Office may approve incorporations that apply to assign legal mandates consistent with the Earth Constitution and world legislation.
2.1.  The Franchise Office shall define legal mandates empowering corporations to perform certain economic operations within a framework considering:
2.1.2.  protection of democracy, 
2.1.3. protection of the environment,
2.1.4. promotion of economic prosperity among people and communities effected by their operations, and, in general,
2.1.5. the common good of the citizens of the Earth Federation.
2.1.6. The Franchise Office shall coordinate with the Office of World Revenue to establish fee schedules and to collect incorporation fees at the time of incorporation, as well as periodic fees for the maintenance of the franchise process.
2.1.7. Incorporation fees are in addition to any licensing and use fees for commerce or industry involving hydrocarbon resources, as established in World Legislative Act #16, Articles 16.5 and 16.6. Entities seeking world federal incorporation shall show proof of payment of hydrocarbon resource usage fees and any fines as a mandatory part of the incorporation licensing process. The order of application is payment of usage fees (including any back fees or fines from years since establishment of the Hydrocarbon Resource Board) and then incorporation fees. If the Franchise Office grants incorporation, then the corporation may also apply for hydrocarbon license from the Hydrocarbon Resource Board to continue operations.

Article 3.
Private, profit-oriented corporations do not have the right, as collective entities, to promote any candidate for election or any political cause within the Earth Federation, nor to contribute funds or campaign contributions or other economic support to candidates for office.
3.1.   However, individuals working within any corporation, have the free and full right to participate in promoting candidates for election or any political cause they choose,
3.2.  Individuals working within any corporation have the right to contribute funds to political campaigns within limits the World Parliament defines.

Article 4.
Private individuals have the right to promote candidates or causes of their choice within the legal criteria that the World Parliament legislates.  World Parliament formulates criteria within a framework that limits the ability of wealthy individuals to unduly influence or colonize the political process.

Article 5.
Non-profit political associations of private individuals (as, for example, political parties, advocacy groups, or think tanks) shall register with the Earth Federation and operate within whatever legal limits, transparency, and other criteria  the World Parliament defines.

Article 6.
Elections conducted under the World Parliament are free, and fair. Independent observers may monitor the elections. 
6.1. Each candidate shall use a government defined and paid for information booklet (which may also be electronic), of a standard size and overall format to be used for campaign purposes (as specified in Article of the Earth Constitution and in World Legislative Act Number29,the Elections Act).
6.2.  Earth Federation policy is to approach and attain for each candidate equal access to public communications media (electronic or print) under limits and conditions the World Parliament defines.
6.3.   Each candidate has the right to use private communications media (electronic or print) as paid for by non-profit advocacy groups or contributions of private citizens under limits and conditions as defined by the World Parliament.
6.4. The World Boundaries and Elections Administration may pay for the cost of information booklets using world currency and credit in Earth Hours. The WBEA shall elaborate a process for approaching and attaining equal access regarding the information booklets. Political parties are responsible for their own printing costs as per World Legislative Act #29.7.

Article 7.
Private, profit-making communications media that are international in scope also fall under the category of corporations and agencies requiring regulation by the Earth Federation (Earth Constitution, Articles 1.4 and 4.13).
7.1.   Profit-making communications corporations are not recognized as legal persons within the Earth Federation.
7.2.    The World Parliament recognizes that profit-making communications corporations may play an important role in fostering democratic processes, the diversity of voices necessary to vigorous dialogue and debate, and disseminating information necessary to democratic decision-making.
7.3.    With this possibly important role in mind, the World Parliament and Ministry of Trade and Commerce might wish to define legal incorporation for such entities differently from that from other profit-making corporations.
7.4.   Nevertheless, the Franchise Office of the Ministry of Trade and Commerce shall define legal powers of profit-making communications corporations within a framework directed toward maximizing the democratic powers of individual persons for participation in political processes and protecting the rights of individual persons to speech and political participation as define in Earth Constitution Articles 12 and 13.
7.5.   The framework identified in 7.4 may be fostered, for example, through anti-trust or anti-cartel laws that break up media conglomerates into a number of smaller, competing voices, or through legislation requiring the airing of opposing viewpoints.

Article 8.
When considering legislation concerning the items specified under this Democracy Enhancement and Corporate Personhood Abolition Act, the World Parliament shall seek input from each of the agencies within the Integrative Complex of the Earth Federation and from any other ministry or agency of the Federation deemed appropriate.
8.1.   Since the World Boundaries and Elections Administration (WBEA, Earth Constitution Article 8.3) is responsible to define the procedures for properly democratic elections ( and defines the rules for world political parties (, this agency shall submit annual reports to the World Parliament regarding the successes and difficulties of democratic elections with respect to the functioning of concentrations of private wealth (wealthy individuals or profit-making corporations) and with respect to the operations of communications corporations.
8.2.  In these reports, WBEA shall include factual assessments of the degrees to which free and fair popular democracy in the service of the majority of people is disrupted by private wealth, profit-making corporations, and/or communications corporations.

Article 9.
Penalties for violations of this act are subject to the sentencing parameters of the World Penal Code (World Legislative Act #19.) enforced by the world police and world courts. Subject to review by the World Parliament, the Franchise Office may assess administrative fines in civil affairs for non-compliance with the policies of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce.  The Franchise Office may assess administrative fines for non-compliance with decisions of the World Parliament. In the case of fines of one month’s income or more, the Franchise Office may file civil charges with the World Bench for Public Cases. Similarly, in cases of fines of one month’s income or more, a corporation may appeal the Franchise Office decision to the World Bench for Public Cases.
9.1. Penalties apply to individuals as well as to corporations, as per World Legislative Act #19. Whenever corporate violations occur, the Enforcement System may vigorously investigate whether individual violations have also occurred. The Enforcement System may assertively pursue individuals suspected of corporate crime.
9.2. The penalties and courts shall normally assess greater responsibility to those higher up in the corporate hierarchy, keeping in mind that obeying orders from one’s authority does not exonerate any individual who knowingly breaks the law.
9.3. Whistle blowers and others who report abuses with regard to this act have protection by this law from retaliation by their employers. The World Ombudsmus shall monitor situations of alleged retaliation and protect the rights of the persons involved. Retaliation for report of abuse of this Act is unlawful (world penalty classification to reflect the seriousness of the retaliation. See World Legislative Act #19.)
9.4. Whether a corporate charter has been denied, revoked or expired, operating an organization under world federal regulative jurisdiction, as defined by Earth Constitution Article 4, without a valid, current corporate charter is unlawful.  (World Class 3 Felony).
9.5. Entry into Force. Civil provisions of this Act enter into force immediately by the adoption of the Provisional World Parliament. Criminal provisions of this Act enter into force one year from the beginning of the First Operative Stage of Earth Federation, unless the Enforcement System and World Court System can bring about adjudication at an earlier date, or unless the World Parliament otherwise decides an earlier date.


Adopted as amended, 10:57 a.m., 29 December 2010, by the 12th Session of the Provisional World Parliament.


Eugenia Almand, JD, Parliament Secretary