Human Spirituality and the Earth Constitution

Every generation inherits a more sophisticated technology and a more pervasive system of domination and social control. But can every new generation inherit an awareness of existence and transformative freedom? Can every new generation inherit awareness of the deep, redeeming silence that encompasses our lives and the universe? Max Picard declares that “Nothing has changed the nature of man so much as the loss of silence” (The World of Silence, p. 41). For Picard, “technics” and the “noise” of radio, etc., have brought human beings spiritually lower, not higher. Similarly, Thomas Merton writes: “No amount of technological progress will cure the hatred that eats away the vitals of materialistic society like a spiritual cancer. The only cure is….a certain interior solitude and silence” (Thoughts in Solitude, p. xi).

This disjunction between the socialization process that impacts people worldwide through the world’s dominant institutions and human awakening may be one of the great dilemmas within the quest for human liberation. The young become socialized within the domination system and within the system of commercialized “noise” that covers up awareness of the depth dimension of silence. Under this system, the chances of awakening to the mysterious depths of existence and transformative freedom are severely diminished. Does this mean the death of what Paulo Freire calls our “ontological vocation to become more fully human”? At the moment, the commodification of existence through the global system of capitalism and the dehumanization of our existence through the savagery of militarized nation-states forces upon the people of Earth two forms of spiritually devastating idolatry: worship of materialism and worship of the nation-state. Both are disastrous for human growth toward planetary maturity.

Both of these systems fragment and deaden human awareness, forcing people’s lives into empty, idolatrous practices and diverting them from their ontological vocation to grow to spiritual, intellectual, and cultural maturity. This is one reason why the people of Earth must take control of technology as well as the dominant social system of the Earth under the Earth Federation. Of course, no social system nor system of law can force spirituality, nor can any system of law legitimately promote a particular religion, but world law can provide the conditions that make spiritual, intellectual, and cultural growth possible. The current perverse world non-system of run-away technology, nationalism, and competitive greed defeats the transformation of human consciousness. But if fragmentation and false materialism are overcome through the ascent to democratic world law under the Earth Constitution, then the new holism of a world-system based on peace, justice, and sustainability will foster a new spirituality.

We do not necessarily need a large number of people aware of the depths of existence and transformative freedom in order to establish the Earth Federation. There are many practical reasons for establishing an Earth Federation under the Earth Constitution that can be readily understood by everyone. However, the ascent to the holism of unity in diversity, along with the ascent to a universal consciousness of world citizenship, along with the beginnings of a world-system concerned to promote the common good of the entire planet and its citizens cannot but have a profound impact on human spirituality. People will no longer be diverted from the unity of our common human ontological project by the false fragmentations of capitalism and militarized nation-states. We can easily envision the military bases everywhere around the world being converted into meditation centers, retreat centers, and conflict resolution centers. The historical imperative for democracy and sustainability on our Earth may well be sufficient for establishing the Earth Federation. But establishing the Federation itself may also well be a necessary condition for further human spiritual development— without which humanity will not be able to survive.

Impact of the New Philosophical Holism on Economics: Household Management on a Global Scale

Abstract: This paper argues that the only viable solution to the disaster of the current globalized economic
system is ratification of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. Part One describestoday’s globalized world economic system and shows that this system has two interrelated components: sovereign nation-states and global capitalism. This “world system” is inherently undemocratic and profoundly dysfunctional, generating real threats to continued human existence such as climate collapse and global nuclear war. Part Two describes the holisms of traditional religions and spirituality and shows the ways in which contemporary science and spirituality have enhanced and demonstrated in depth the holism of the cosmos. Part Three makes the case that only a global social contract under the Earth Constitution, establishing authentic planetary democracy, can give us an economics that truly benefits everyone, the environment and future generations.

1. The Disaster of Economic Globalization from Above

Aristotle said that economics was about managing our household, about how we arranged things so that work gets done and everyone gets a proper share of the resulting prosperity. Today, our household has become planet Earth. The phenomenon known has globalization has made the Earth one interdependent economic household. If we do not begin treating both economics and politics as such, as managing the household on which all of us depend, it will likely mean our doom. This one interdependent economic household works only for the benefit of, at most, the top 40% or so of the world’s population, and, ultimately, primarily for the benefit of the top 1%. A giant juggernaut of unregulated production and consumption, of unlimited waste-generation and indiscriminate energy use, of unlimited financial speculation and reckless gambling, has gripped the nations, banking cartels, and elites of the world over the past century, wreaking havoc with our
planetary environment and the lives of hundreds of millions, if not billions, of people. As Bill McKibben points out, more is systematically thought by modern globalized economics to be better (2007: 1-4).

Mainstream economics for decades has promoted unlimited and largely unregulated growth in production, financial speculation, and privatization. Social scientists Terry Boswell and Christopher Chase-Dunn summarize this globalized system as follows: At all points of exchange in production, capitalists have institutionalized coercive power as employers, bosses, lenders, and landlords. Both Adam Smith and Karl Marx considered exploitation to be the application of coercive power in markets to obtain an unequal exchange…. Globalization is a multifaceted process that includes foreign investment, information exchange, and world cultural commercialization, as well as the integration of trade and production. (2000: 21 & 33)

Capitalism is a global system with a single world economy but multiple competing states…. For socialism to replace capitalism, it too must be a global system that embraces a democratic world polity. (Ibid. 11)
The promoters of “globalization” have worked to remove nation-state legal supervision and controls over labor, resource use, environmental protections, and support for citizens through food subsidies, public utilities, education, health care, etc. The common name for this use of coercive power to enhance unequal exchange and exploitation is “structural adjustment.” As Ellen Hodgson Brown relates it, these programs are “a code word for economic globalization and privatization—a formula which aims both to shrink the role of the state and soften the market for private investors” (2007: 231). As the terrible bind in which the European Union bankers have currently placed the country of Greece shows, economics is no longer under the democratic control of the people in any country on Earth. Award winning economist Michael Hudson writes:
[When Greece joined the Eurozone, it falsified its debt figures, and in reality its debts were unpayable. However:] If Greece doesn’t pay, then all these gamblers and derivative players are going to lose their bets.

You’ve got to sacrifice Greece and you’ve got to drive it into poverty, and lend the Greek government the money to pay the bond holders so that our Wall Street banks won’t lose money. So the European Central Bank told the IMF if you want to be a player, you’ve got to ignore what the stats said, and they did. And the European Central Bank and the IMF paid over 100 billion Euros to the bond holders. So Greece instead of owing private bond holders, owed the IMF and the European Central Bank. Now the European Central Bank wants to get paid, but the debts can’t be paid. So the central bank says, okay Greece. Sell us your islands. Sell us your ports. Sell us your lands. Sell us your raw materials. This is foreclosure time. And if you can’t pay, we
want everything in the public domain. And you also have to impose austerity. You have–only 20 percent of your population has emigrated. You only have a 60 percent unemployment rate for youth. You’ve got to increase the unemployment rate to 80 percent, double the emigration, in order for us to make the loans to your government that will turn right around and pay us. Globalization has been for the benefit of the rich and powerful: nation-states, bankers, and corporations.

It is the product of a world system whose dynamics and structures are clearly identifiable, analyzable, and changeable. Under the leadership of the IMF, the World Bank, and other multinational consortiums of private banking cartels, the core countries of the world in North America, Europe, and Japan use the coercive power of national laws, international trade agreements, financial indebtedness to the global banking system, and ultimately military superiority to marginalize, exploit, and economically colonize the peripheral countries of the world (ibid. 23-30). The globalized world economic system is also inseparable from a system of some 193 sovereign nation-states, nearly all vulnerable to being manipulated, coerced or
overthrown depending on their degree of cooperation and complicity with the globalized economic regime.

This world system has two fundamental components, therefore, and critics of globalization often leave out the crucial second component. As with capitalism, scholars often date the development of the system of sovereign states to the mid17th century (ibid. 23). Globalized corporate capitalism has developed in close tandem with system of so-called sovereign nation-states, a system today fragmenting humankind into some 193 separate units arranged in a hierarchy of powerful core nations, secondary “semi-peripheral” nations, and a “periphery” of marginalized and exploited nations, largely in the global south (Shannon 1989).

The current globalized world system, therefore, is a nexus of capitalist enterprises and sovereign nation-states—giant banking and multinational corporate enterprises primarily concerned with the accumulation of private profit in close cooperation with sovereign nation-states primarily operating at the service of their capitalist ruling classes in a world of power politics directed toward national ascendancy, control of global resources, and domination of world markets. Of the many horrendous consequences of this system, three in particular stand out: first, global poverty and misery continue to increase for the majority while the few become ever more obscenely wealthy and powerful. Second, much of production involves huge expenditures on militarism and hideous weapons systems of such destructive power that a major war could wipe out humanity.

Third, the global environment is collapsing, massive extinctions of living creatures are occurring, and the planetary ecosystem that supports life on Earth is increasingly in ruins. Both of the primary structural features of today’s globalized economy (sovereign nation-states and corporate capitalism) derive from the era dominated by the early-modern Newtonian paradigm in philosophy and science, an era in which the world was conceived on the analogy of a vast machine, operating via a causal determinism, and analytically reducible to its atomistic parts.

The nation-state system and their capitalist competitive enterprises were understood in terms of this paradigm as well: sovereign nation-states and individual capitalist enterprises were seen as the atoms of the world system struggling within a causally determined mechanism of iron economic laws (of supply and demand, perpetual growth, diminishing returns, production for private profit, etc.) in a world of power politics and economic competition to survive and prosper vis-à-vis their competitors (Cf. Harris 2000b). Boswell and Chase-Dunn conclude: Class relations expanded beyond the labor process to become institutionalized in state, colonial, and interstate structures. A system of sovereign states…is fundamental to the origins and reproduction of the capitalist world economy…. In the interstate system, unequally powerful states compete for resources by supporting profitable commodity production and by engaging in geopolitical and military competition. (Ibid. 23-24)

The current globalized world economic and political system is, therefore, fragmented to its very core. By its own premises, it cannot possibly be modified into an economics that addresses the common good and the welfare of all. In all cases authentic democracy is subverted by a super-wealthy ruling class serving its own interests. Under its theoretical premises, the economic and interstate system are both ruled by so-called laws of power and profit that are amoral. It assumes that individual capitalists and statesmen may be moral but that they are less efficient at their jobs if they allow morality to interfere with the impersonal workings of the economic and interstate systems (cf. Morganthau 1993). The system is structurally founded on divisions, competition—resulting in absolute winners and losers. It is premised on systematically taking the wealth provided by nature on planet Earth, which all people inherent, and as well as our human ability to work and produce wealth based on these resources, and turning all of this into the private property of a few (cf. Smith 2008: 1- 17).

2. The New Philosophical and Scientific Holism

he principles of holism and harmony have deep roots in human civilization going back at least to the Axial Period in human history during the first millennium before the Common Era. For many thinkers and religious teachers throughout this history, holism was the dominant thought, and the harmony that it implies has most often been understood to encompass cosmic, civilizational, and personal dimensions. Jesus, Mohammed, Buddha, Shankara, Lord Krishna, Lao Tzu, and Confucius all give us visions of transformative harmony, a transformative harmony that derives from a deep relation to the holism of the cosmos. Human beings were viewed as microcosms of that holism and must seek ways to allow it to emerge within their lives and cultures.

Today, not only spirituality and religion, but the entire spectrum of sciences has rediscovered holism as the fundamental feature of humanity, our planetary ecosystem, and the cosmos. Today, however, holism appears to us not only as a constant, abiding feature of our universe, but also as an emergent and evolutionary aspect of the cosmos and all life as discovered not only by mystics but by the most advanced sciences (cf. Laszlo 2014). In the face of the pervasive disharmony of much of human existence that we experience worldwide, the principles of holism and harmony function, in the words of Ernst Bloch (1986), as a gigantic “principle of hope.” We recognize that disharmony threatens the very existence of life on Earth, a disharmony fundamentally connected with the world’s globalized political-economic system. We face the possible end of the human project and higher forms of life on this planet through climate collapse, nuclear war, or some other terminal disaster.

Yet holism is also the most fundamental discovery of 20th century science. It is a discovery of every science from astrophysics to quantum physics to environmental science to psychology to anthropology. It is the discovery that the entire universe is an integral whole, and that the basic organizational principle of the universe is the field principle: the universe consists of fields within fields, levels of wholeness and integration that mirror in fundamental ways, and integrate with, the ultimate, cosmic whole. Both human beings and the ecosystem of planet Earth are such holistic fields.

This discovery has overthrown the early-modern Newtonian paradigm in the sciences, which, we have seen, was predicated on atomism, causal determinism, mechanism, and a materialism that was discerned, it was thought, by a narrow empiricism. The holism of the ancient and medieval thinkers was superseded by this early-modern Newtonian paradigm in the 16th and 17th centuries. This development generated a host of assumptions about the world and human beings that became determinate for the basic world view that most people and institutions continue to hold. But the picture established by the sciences today has negated and inverted this world view. All scientific fields today understand that the parts must be understood in terms of the wholes of which they are part, in terms of the fields in which they are embedded. Holism means that wholes and parts form an undissectable matrix that cannot be reduced to its component parts, from the tiniest micro-particles to the entire universe.

As cosmologists Menas Kafatos and Robert Nadeau express this:
It was presumed that reductionism was valid, and, therefore, that one could analyze the whole into parts and deduce the nature of the whole from the parts. With the discovery of non-locality that picture is reversed—it is the whole which discloses ultimately the identity of the parts. Non-locality…forces the assumption that the universe is at the most fundamental level an undissectable whole…. (1990: 121)

We are in the midst of a tremendous paradigm-shift. The fragmentation that derived from the early-modern Newtonian paradigm is incorrect and inadequate. The system of sovereign nation-states and global corporate capitalism are dinosaurs of fragmentation, destroying human life and our planetary ecosystem. The globalized drive to universal privatization is exactly the opposite of what is needed and demanded by the nature of the real world we inhabit. Human beings are an interdependent anthropological, spiritual, moral, and civilizational whole. Our planetary ecosystem of waters, oceans, atmosphere, forests, living things, and persons is an interconnected whole. It belongs to all of us and to future generations. And our planetary political and economic systems need to reflect that wholeness if we are to survive and flourish much longer on this Earth.

However, the holism of the ancients has been rediscovered on a higher level. We understand, very much more clearly than these ancient thinkers, that human beings are deeply historical beings, moving from a past, through a dynamic present, toward a future that we are deeply involved in creating. We create our future through a vision and comprehension of its possibilities. Revolutionary holism is just that: a holism that can transform everything from disharmony to harmony, from war to peace, from hate to love. Ethics, law, education, and government are all historically grounded aspects of human life. This means they are subject to holistic transformation, to “a new heaven and a new Earth,” that, indeed, has much in common with what the ancient teachers said about holism and harmony.

It is important to be clear that there are two interrelated and interlinked dimensions of the holism recognized by scientists and serious thinkers today. The first is the unchanging cosmic plenum, the “one without a second,” in the language of several Hindu thinkers. Swami Vivekananda expresses this, for example, when he writes: “When [a person] can say, “I am in everything, in everybody, I am in all lives, I am the universe, then alone comes the state of fearlessness…. The guiding motive of mankind should be charity towards men, charity towards all animals. But these are all various expressions of that eternal truth that, “I am the universe; this universe is one.” (1989: 81-82)

This classical holism of the ancient religions and spirituality has been supplemented in the past century by the realization that there is an emergent holism inherent within the cosmic evolutionary process—the cosmic process since the Big Bang some 14 billion years ago has teleologically brought fourth higher and ever more complex forms of organization, mind, and freedom. Human life is a very advanced example of this emergent evolutionary upsurge of cosmic holism. As paleontologist and theologian Teilhard de Chardin puts this:
I doubt whether there is a more decisive moment for a thinking being then when the scales fall from his eyes and he discovers that he is not an isolated unit lost in cosmic solitudes, and realizes that a universal will to live converges and is hominised in him. In such a vision man is seen not as a static center of the world – as he long believed himself to be – but as the axis and leading shoot of evolution, which is something much finer. (1959: 36)

To accommodate this insight philosophically, many thinkers have followed Alfred North Whitehead’s distinction between God’s “primordial” nature and God’s “consequent” nature. The universal evolutionary process is not simply the maya of the divine One to which all things are reducible without qualification. Whitehead concludes that the actualization of love and harmony in the world by human creatures is internalized within “the consequent nature of God” and returns to us from God to influence the course of future events. For human beings, God is the “lure for feeling, the eternal urge of desire,” drawing us toward an emergent holism of unity in diversity, peace, and planetary community. Our symbolic notion of bringing the Kingdom of God to Earth arises from this lure informing human desire: “It dwells upon the tender elements in the world,” Whitehead writes, “which slowly and in quietness operate by love” (1978: 343):
For the kingdom of heaven is with us today…. What is done in the world is transformed into a reality in heaven, and the reality in heaven passes back into the world. By reason of this reciprocal relation, the love of the world passes into the love in heaven, and floods back again into the world. (Ibid. 351) Ethics, love, intuition, values, religion, and culture are not “merely subjective” reactions to an impartial “objective” reality.

There is “great intelligence and purpose in the cosmos,” philosopher Jacob Needleman affirms, and that intelligence and purpose is also embodied in us (1975: 119). As Spinoza declared in the 17th century, God “forms the essence of the human mind” (Ethics II, xi), and part of this essence is love. Our purposes are to create harmony, reconciliation, integration, respect for human rights and human dignity, the just rule of democratic world law, universal friendships, and loving relationships. The emergent evolutionary holism of humanity, the cosmos, and the Earth presents us with a paradigm for science and human life in direct contradiction to the world system of corporate capitalism and sovereign nation-states that we inherent from the early-modern Newtonian paradigm.

The principle that animates human reason is also the fundamental organizational principle of the cosmos itself, which is relational and holistic through and through. The universe is not only organized as a series of ever more complex and evolving systems of parts-within-wholes up to, and including, the ultimate, encompassing wholeness of the cosmos itself (and beyond that to the One beyond name and form), but human beings are themselves such wholes as individuals, while at the same time parts functioning within the holism of the human species, planetary nature, and the cosmos. Human beings wholes both at the primordial level (we are already all human and one with the cosmos) and are becoming ever more whole at the emergent level (through the evolution of human maturity, human rights, global awareness, and world polity).

Human reason both discerns this holism everywhere in nature and is itself a manifestation of it. “The important point,” philosopher Errol E. Harris writes, “is that reflective intelligence and reason are seen as intrinsic and essential to the universe as a whole” (2000a: 280). The drive (or telos) within nature is toward ever-greater forms of holism and the telos within us is likewise toward ethical and intellectual holism. Harris concludes:
If the implications of this scientific revolution and the new paradigm it produces are taken seriously, holism should be the dominating concept in all our thinking. In considering the diverse problems and crises that have arisen out of practices inspired by the Newtonian paradigm, it is now essential to think globally. Atomism, individualism, separatism and reductionism have become obsolete, are no longer tolerable, and must be given up. (2000b: 90)

In their book The Universe Story: From the Primordial Flaring Forth to the Ecozoic Era, A Celebration of the Unfolding of the Cosmos, Brian Swimme and Thomas Berry tell the story of a universal creative holism “from the primordial flaring forth to the Ecozoic Era, a celebration of the unfolding of the cosmos.” The whole story, as it has been discovered in the 20th century, is indeed the holistic story. The early-modern paradigm from which our present global economic and political system derives, a mere four centuries in duration, was an aberration, a discordant note, within the symphony of the whole story. Swimme and Berry refer to it as the “Technozoic” era and write that: “The greater part of contemporary industrial society, it seems, is oriented to the Technozoic rather than to the Ecozoic. Certainly the corporate establishment, with its enormous economic control over the whole of modern existence, is dedicated to the Technozoic” (249-250, cf. Johnson and Ord 2012).

3. Holistic Globalization of Economics and Politics 2013 book The Anatomy of a Sustainable World: Our Choice between Climate Change or System Change, focuses on sustainable economics, as articulated very clearly, for example, in Herman E. Daly’s Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development (1992). The Anatomy of a Sustainable World draws on the fundamental economic insights that are integral to many writers who link the new holistic paradigm with economics (e.g., Daly and Cobb 1994). Economics and politics (in the global sense) cannot be separated. Laws define the way an economy operates, and only truly democratically legislated laws can give us a global economics to the benefit of all. These insights can be summarized in terms of five fundamental economic-political principles:

• First, production must be primarily for use-values and not for the extraction of surplus value. This means that we must produce what we need and ensure the durability and utility of what we need rather than producing things to be used up, consumed, and discarded as trash or waste.

• Second, costs must be calculated holistically in terms of our relationship to the environment, society, and future generations. This means that externalities can no longer be ignored in the economic calculations of production and consumption. The capitalist system to date has maximized private profit by externalizing the true costs of production onto society, the environment, and future generations.

• Third, the ideology of perpetual growth is in contradiction with living on a finite planet with delicately interwoven ecological systems and limited natural resources. Economic development must become qualitative, rather than quantitative. As we have seen Bill McKibben point out, better does not mean more. Indeed the equation of these two things is at the heart of our modern economic and ecological disasters (2007: 8-11).

• Fourth, the perpetual framework of money scarcity and debt financing, enforced by the global privatized banking system, needs to be transformed into a public, debt-free system focused on empowering creativity and sustainable productivity while engendering reasonable economic equality. (Cf. Smith 2008: 43-50).

• Fifth, we need to monitor the intricate ecosystems and human activities everywhere on our planet to ensure that ecological balance is maintained and sustainable production and consumption are taking place. It will do little good if there is sustainability in North America but not in China, or if there are reduction of carbon emissions in Russia and not in Brazil. The entire world must be on the same page. All compelling principles: holism, economic necessity, and human freedom demand that rogue individuals, groups, corporations, or nations are not disrupting the fragile ecological balances that we and all future generations depend upon for survival and flourishing.

None of these needed changes to the system can happen apart from the larger paradigm-shift from the early-modern paradigm of fragmentation to the newly understood holistic planetary paradigm. The world-system is an integral product of the early-modern paradigm and there can be no economic liberation outside the context of fundamental paradigmshift to holism: cultural, political, economic, and civilizational. As Boswell and Chase-Dunn put it, we require “a world polity” (2000: 25-26) in which economic democracy is practiced in the service of the common good of all people and the planet. The common good of the people of Earth, the environment and future generations cannot be served without a democratic global political system that makes possible an economics premised on that common good.

It avails little to discuss what might be the best economic system without recognizing that the liberation cannot happen without transformation of the entire world system from fragmentation to holism. As I have written about at length in books such as Ascent to Freedom (2008), a system of so-called “sovereign” states recognizing no effective law above themselves is inherently a war system and inherently a system of naked power, domination, and imperialism of core states over weaker states and the majority of humanity.

And these core states are in turn run by global banking cartels and a super-rich ruling class keeping control over the population and the government through debt bondage (cf. Brown 2007). We require a global system in which the equality of all planetary persons is recognized and in which economic and legal principles are premised on the common good of the whole of civilization, not the perceived self-interests of sovereign nation-states, banking cartels, or multinational corporations. This system must ensure reasonable economic democracy and equality to prevent military and/or economic domination of the few over the many.

This holistic transformation is concentrated and articulated in the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. Only such a brilliantly designed and effective global social contract can affect the economic changes needed if we are to have a future on this planet. The Anatomy of a Sustainable World goes into the economic arrangements provided by the Earth Constitution in some detail, beyond what is possible here. But the more fundamental point should not be missed: it is the transformation itself, the uniting of the world under the holistic framework of the Earth Constitution that will be the key to an economics of universal prosperity and sustainability. The five economic principles outlined above cannot be actualized without the concomitant uniting of the world under the political and civilizational principle of unity in diversity (the principle of holism) upon which the Earth Constitution is founded. From this transformed paradigm everything else follows, including a transformed economics. The result, in one sentence, is sustainable, democratic market socialism worldwide, everywhere locally and cooperatively operated, empowered by a public, socially-created money system valued the same everywhere. Here is a list of some of the specific economic consequences that follow from ratification of the Earth Constitution:

• Global public, debt-free banking directed toward sustainable productivity of use-values for all people on Earth (Article 8.7). This means that money is created by the Earth Federation and lent at low interest or interest free to any and all who have a sustainable productive project that can protect the environment, produce use-values, or engender new techniques or discoveries. Universal credit from debt-free public money is a public utility, a right of everyone on the Earth.

• One universal currency valued the same everywhere and one universal set of wage standards and corresponding limits on private profit legislated by law for the empowerment of global ecological and productive health and the common good of the Earth (Article 8.7), along with reasonable global economic equality for all (the Provisional World Parliament has already moved in this direction with World Legislative Act 22: The Equity Act).

• All unnecessary non-productive extractive activities (such as militarism, mining, rent, and interest-seeking)
abolished, minimized or regulated along with all non-productive financial speculation. The world’s basic, vital
resources, including its oceans, diminishing fresh water supply, atmosphere, and hydrocarbons, become the social possession of the people of Earth (Article 4).

• Income security for everyone, including quality health-care, education, accident insurance, food, housing, clean water and sanitation. (It has been repeatedly shown that these are relatively inexpensive and easily provided merely by converting the trillions of dollars now spent on militarism worldwide to these necessities of life.) These are all guaranteed under the Earth Constitution (Article 13).

• Careful monitoring of all the Earth’s ecosystems, productive activities, and technologies by agencies of the
Integrative Complex (established in Article 8 of the Constitution) to ensure integration of human activities with the ecological balances of our planet. (Just as there is no legitimate political freedom without the regulation of democratic laws, so there is no legitimate economic freedom without economic regulation in the service of the common welfare.)

• Cooperative and local enterprises legally empowered, promoted, and monitored for sustainability everywhere on Earth (Articles 13.16 and 14). The Provisional World Parliament has already taken steps in this direction with World Legislative Act 63: the Cooperative Communities Empowerment Act. With their externalization of costs now forbidden by law, giant multinational corporations will not be able to complete with locally grown food and local cooperative production and will soon begin breaking up and divesting into ecologically sustainable, more cooperative enterprises. Economist J.W. Smith writes that: “To keep everything local, each social unity—a federation of nations, each nation, each region within a nation, each state, each community, each business, and each entrepreneur—should have a constitutional right to their share of socially created money” (2008: 11). This is one consequence of global, public, debt-free banking under the Earth Constitution.

• Massive public works projects employing former military personnel and underemployed people worldwide in restoring the environment, planting trees, cleaning up pollution, and converting to solar and clean forms of
energy. Steps in this direction have already been taken by the Provisional World Parliament in World Legislative Act # 51: the Economic Prosperity Act of 2010. (The people of Earth want and need to be put to work, and there is plenty of valuable work that needs to be done. The absurdity of the present system is that it puts people out of work. As E.F. Schumacher put this in Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered (1973), the goal of the capitalist is production or speculation for profit while eliminating as much as possible the liability of labor costs.)

It should be clear that none of these essential features of a liberated world economy is possible without the paradigmshift to the unity in diversity of the Earth Constitution. On the other hand, all of these transformative innovations not only go together but would be relatively easy to implement by the World Parliament under the authority given to it by the Earth Constitution. Economics follows from this holistic paradigm-shift. We need to manage our global household, our entire interdependent planet (its peoples, its economics, and its ecosystems) holistically and democratically, serving the common good of all and not private interests. The only effective and timely way to do this, I submit, is through ratification of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, that is, through effective global democracy.

Speculation about possible economic changes apart from the holistic transformation effected by the Earth Constitution is relatively futile because it puts the cart before the horse. Global capitalism and the system of sovereign nation-states form one integral world-system premised on false, early-modern paradigm assumptions. The Constitution transforms the whole world system to the holism of unity in diversity. And from this paradigm-shift to authentic global democracy, and from this alone, follows economic liberation for the people of Earth and future generations.

Note: this paper draws from my forthcoming book One World Renaissance (IED Press, 2015).
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Swimme, Brian and Berry, Thomas (1992). The Universe Story – From the Primordial Flaring Forth to the Ecozoic Era, A Celebration of
the Unfolding of the Cosmos. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco.
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Vivekananda, Swami (1989). The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Volume 2. Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama publisher.
Whitehead, Alfred North (1978). Process and Reality. Corrected Edition. New York: Macmillan.

Building the New World under the Earth Constitution

My heart is overflowing from the Building the New World Conference that just concluded here at Radford
University in southwest Virginia. Shift Network leaders, leaders in spirituality, and visionary futurists came
together with people from the international movement for a world parliament under our common
passionate concern for the future of our beautiful Earth, its living creatures, and all humanity. Barbara
Marx Hubbard was our keynote honored guest who spoke with us concerning the miraculous story of a
universe that brings fourth life, consciousness and love through some 14 billion years of evolutionary

Reverend Laura George and I were honored to be the organizers and hosts for this wonderful four-day
forum. We had friendsfrom Damanhur in Italy and a number of other alternative communities who spoke
to us about their work in relation to building a new world. We kept returning to the big picture. How can
those of us who understand and experience the emergent possibilities of a holistically transformed
humanity work together to help forge a world of justice, peace, freedom, sustainability, and prosperity?

My own passionate concern for the future of humanity goes back to my college years when I became a
conscientious objector to the Vietnam War and to all war. Throughout my undergraduate and graduate
work in philosophy, I focused on the burning issues of peace and war, spiritual transformation, and how
we can establish a decent future for the world and its creatures. If I understood nothing else, it was that
the system of globalized corporate capitalism interfaced with the system of autonomous militarized
nation-states was a disaster for our planet. I studied Buddhism, the Kabbalah, Christian, Sufi, and Hindu
mysticism, the literature of peace studies, and practiced meditation. But still I found no concrete,
satisfactory answers concerning how we might save the Earth for future generations.

Then in 1995 I discovered the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. What it represented hit me like a
thunderbolt. The Earth did not need to be controlled by the 10% who have colonized governments to
ensure their domination and exploitation of the people and resources. The Earth need not be controlled
by imperial governments brandishing weapons of mass destruction and capable of inflicting “shock and
awe” on smaller and weaker nations in the service of corporate and elite interests. I found that thousands
of world citizens had worked together from 1958 to 1991 to produce this brilliant Earth Constitution that
was premised on the principle of the unity in diversity of all humanity.

The Constitution sets up a global participatory democracy, protecting the rights and dignity of every
person on the planet, in which world peace, equitable prosperity, and ecological sustainability are
foundational principles. Without this world peace with justice system, the future of our planet remains
in the hands of historically anachronistic fragments—about 500 giant corporations concerned mainly with
private profit and some 193 nation-states pouring our precious resources not into human welfare, but
into militarism and war.

The Earth Constitution establishes a World Parliament of three houses—the House of Peoples, the House
of Nations, and the House of Counselors. The House of Peoples represents 1000 electoral districts worldwide. The House of Nations has representatives from each nation, depending on population, and the
House of Counselors has 200 representatives from around the world who are academics, ecologists,
peace-makers, or other wisdom leaders. The people of Earth can then effectively govern themselves. The
Constitution abolishes all militaries and allows only civilian police who are accountable to due process of

The Constitution federates the nations under a world system that can deal with our global problems that
are beyond the scope of any nation. Article 1 of the Constitution specifies these “broad functions” of the
Earth Federation government: (1) to end war and disarm the nations, (2) to protect universal human
rights, including social and economic rights and the right to a healthy planetary environment, (3) to
eliminate unfair social differences and establish reasonable prosperity for all people, (4) to regulate world
interactions protecting the environment and equitable use of the Earth’s resources, (5) to protect our
planetary ecology and create a sustainable global economy, and (6) to address all problems that are
beyond the scope of nations.

Since 1995 I have been travelling the world promoting this Constitution. It represents the ascent of
humankind to planetary maturity. We can govern ourselves on this Earth. By moving effective democratic
government to the global level, we establish for all humanity and future generations a world peace
system, a world justice system, and a world sustainability system. At last, as Barbara Marx Hubbard
expresses this, we begin to engage in “conscious evolution” for all of humanity. Let us study and promote
this wonderful Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

(Glen T. Martin is President of the World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA) as well as Chair
of the Peace Studies Program and Professor of Philosophy at Radford University. He is author of some ten
books on planetary maturity and human transformation. In recognition of his worldwide work, in 2013 he
was awarded the GUSI International Prize for Peace.)

The New Holism

A Guide for the Preservation and Redemption of Human Life

We are living during a time of fundamental paradigm-shift from fragmentation to holism. The great question of our time is whether the shift to holism will happen in time to save humanity from self-extinction. Will the human project be terminated through some forms of climate collapse or nuclear holocaust? Or will we transform our relationships with one another to the point where we create a holistic, just, loving, and sustainable planetary civilization? My new book, One World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation Through a Global Social Contract, from which this article draws, explores these issues at some depth.

Holism is the most fundamental discovery of 20th century science. It is a discovery of every science from astrophysics to quantum physics to environmental science to psychology to anthropology. It is the discovery that the entire universe is an integral whole, and that the basic organizational principle of the universe is the field principle: the universe consists of fields within fields, levels of wholeness and integration that mirror in fundamental ways, and integrate with, the ultimate, cosmic whole.

This discovery has overthrown the early-modern Newtonian paradigm in the sciences, which was predicated on atomism, causal determinism, mechanism, and a materialism that was discerned, it was thought, by a narrow empiricism. The holism of the ancient and medieval thinkers was superseded by this early-modern Newtonian paradigm in the 16th and 17th centuries. This development generated a host of assumptions about the world and human beings that became determinate for the basic world view that most people and institutions continue to hold today .

For many thinkers and religious teachers throughout this history, holism was the dominant thought, and the harmony that it implies has most often been understood to encompass cosmic, civilizational, and personal dimensions. Jesus, Mohammed, Buddha, Lord Krishna, Lao Tzu, and Confucius all give us visions of transformative harmony, a transformative harmony that derives from a deep relation to the holism of the cosmos. Human beings are microcosms of that holism and must seek ways to allow it to emerge within their lives and cultures. The early-modern paradigm reversed this holism and saw the world in atomistic and mechanistic terms. Human beings were not microcosms but rather the human mind, consciousness, and our needs for love and solidarity were seen as merely subjective epiphenomena not deeply related to the “cold, hard facts” supposedly discovered by science.

Today the holism of the ancients has been rediscovered on a higher level. We understand, very much more clearly than these ancient thinkers, that human beings are deeply historical beings, moving from a past, through a dynamic present, toward a future that we are deeply involved in creating. We create our future through a vision and comprehension of its possibilities. Revolutionary holism is just that: a holism that can transform everything from disharmony to harmony, from war to peace, from hate to love. Ethics, law, education, and government are all historically grounded aspects of human life. This means they are subject to holistic transformation, to “a new heaven and a new Earth,” that, indeed, has much in common with what the ancient teachers said about holism and harmony.

Holism is not simply an intellectual perception of harmony, for in holism we are included in the wholes, wholes that we discern at the deepest levels with our entire being. We both discern and embody the holism of humanity, of the earth, of the cosmos, and of the divine. Holism means not only reason but love, indeed, it involvesthe synthesis of reason, intuition, and love. If reason has discovered this pervasive holism through the sciences, the love taught by the ancient religious teachers complements and embodies that holism. Jesus taught the oneness of humanity within the embrace of divine love: “When you have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren you have done it unto me.” In his teaching, recognition of our common humanity within the ontological love of God is the foundation for a transformed human community, the bringing of the kingdom of God to Earth.

The reality of ourselves as persons is not that of abstract, disconnected individuals possessing a priori rights against other people and society. This conception that human beings are a collection of individuals for whom civilization and the social order are second-order relationships is a product of the early-modern, Newtonian paradigm that forms the conceptual basis for both capitalism and the system of sovereign nation-states. Within capitalism, the fundamental nature of the social bond is ignored and denied. People and corporations are considered abstract atoms promoting their rational selfinterest in competition with all other such entities. Under the nation-state system, the planet is divided into a multiplicity of militarized territorial units, each promoting its own national interests vis-à-vis the rest of humanity, again institutionally denying our common human reality and our holistic interdependence with all other persons and with nature.

The reality is that our individuality and our social-ontological bond with civilization and the rest of humanity arise simultaneously. We are connected to all others and the entire human project. From this connection comes about abilities for language, reason, love, compassion, social harmony, and transformative justice. Our fundamental reality is not that of abstract atoms within a fragmented world disorder in a Darwinian struggle for survival. Our reality is our common humanity, interdependent with one another, needing solidarity and mutual recognition, and living within a fragile planetary ecosystem in which all living creatures are also interdependent. The reasons why human beings continue to wallow in disharmony, violence, and chaos arise in large measure from our misunderstanding of who and what we are. We need to understand ever more clearly the tremendous significance of the emergent holism and our vital role within the new “universe story” (Swimme and Berry 1992).

A global consciousness has begun to emerge that was very rare in human beings prior to the mid-20th century. It is a consciousness that we now face global crises and global issues that threaten our existence on Earth. It began to dawn on thoughtful people everywhere that we are faced with impending climate collapse—the transformation of our planetary climate into forms that no longer sustain higher forms of life and that could, in the process of collapse, engender out of control patterns of devastation such as mass extinctions or pandemics that wipe out the human species and destroy civilization (Speth, 2005). “What we are experiencing today,” philosopher Hans Jonas writes, “is the paradox of excessive success that threatens to turn into a catastrophe by destroying its own foundation in the natural world” (1996: 53).

In his book Global Responsibility: In Search of a New World Ethics, Hans Küng agrees that the early-modern paradigm must be replaced by a “holistic way of thinking,” by a “new covenant.” He calls into question “the modern paradigm” which consists of “a science free of ethics; an omnipotent macrotechnology; an industry which destroys the environment; a democracy which is purely a legal form.” “Modern scientific and technological thought,” he says, “has from the beginningproved incapable of providing the foundation for universal values, human rights, and ethical criteria” (1991: 41-42). In the modern conception, he says, “reason, which is not involved in any cosmos and to which nothing is sacred, destroys itself.” Harmony does not exist. On the other hand, in the new holism reason is again grounded cosmically and therefore can serve as a foundation for a new ethics of global responsibility.

Human life is clearly an evolutionary whole. But human institutions and consciousness have not evolved to manifest this wholeness. Rational loyalty and compassionate solidarity with the wholes of which we are a part is still missing. Rather, our institutions and ways of life are fragmented, broken, and endangering our future on the earth. If human institutions reflected the wholeness of humanity, the transformation of consciousness would soon follow in a pattern that has been repeatedly shown throughout human history. The kind of institutions in which we live influence the kind of persons we become and the ways in which we relate to one another. Changing the conceptual foundations of our laws and institutions can allow the spirituality of love and compassionate justice to enter society. Peter Gabel, for example, describes the goals of the Integrating Spirituality, Law, and Politics project within the United States:
Our aim is to transform law into the building of a binding culture in public space—in public rooms like courthouses and courtrooms, in written discourses like law books and legislation—that attempts to foster empathy and compassion and human understanding, a force of healing and mutual recognition, rather than the mere parceling out of rights among solitary and adversarial individuals. (2013: 180)

We need to establish planetary democratic world law on exactly these principles. According to the principle of holism on which the universe is constructed, if we want a future on this planet we must unite under democratic world law founded on the holistic principle of unity in diversity. Uniting humanity under democratic world law would engender a qualitative leap: the whole is more than merely the sum of its parts. New qualities would emerge with the wholeness of human institutions and consciousness that would be very powerful, liberating, and would give us our best prospect for a world based on peace, justice, and sustainability.

The new holistic paradigm must serve as the presupposition for the meaning of the parts on every level, from the cosmos to the planetary biosphere to human life. We must make a paradigm-shift from starting with the parts and trying to build wholes (peace, justice, sustainability, etc.) to an orientation that starts from the whole on every level. We must think of our individuality, our culture, our economics, and our nation as deriving from the holism of humanity, not the reverse. The transformation of primary perspective, of starting point, is one of the keys to human liberation. The Constitution for the Federation of Earth, written by hundreds of world citizens over a period of some 23 years from 1968-1991, is predicated precisely on this holism of planetary unity in diversity (Martin 2010). It starts from the whole, and then addresses the institutional means for governing the unity in diversity that constitutes human civilization. The paradigm-shift to holism with respect to government and law requires that we recognize the illegitimacy of the global political-economic system that is today rapidly shredding the possibility for any viable future for human beings on Earth.

The dominant political and economic system of the world today violates wholeness, and, focusing as both nations and corporations do on external relations, violates the possibility of harmony. For every nation today, national and sectarian interests take priority over planetary interests, but planetary interests are those of the whole of humanity and future generations. They arise from our holistic situation and require a holistic perspective and set of institutions to address them.

The holistic paradigm of law and government identifies a planetary common good, transcending the localized common goods of territorial nation-states. The clear principles of our planetary common good include peace, disarmament, ecological sustainability, and the elimination of the scourge of global poverty. It recognizes that the fate of all people is linked together, both because we are all human beings and because a globalized world has forced awareness of these rights to peace and a protected environment upon us all. Engendering a new global democratic order will establish government and law directed toward making the world a decent place for all its citizens, not just the one percent, and not just those in North America, Europe, or Japan. The very nature of holistic law demands this: the purpose of government and law is intrinsically moral and intrinsically demands universal application through compassionate justice and ecological sustainability.

It is important to be clear that the process of emergence of this world peace system, and the planetary social democracy it entails, is not simply one arbitrary option among the various possibilities that we encounter as we reflect on our common future. We have seen that a dynamic principle of holism is fundamental to all the processes of the universe including human evolutionary development. Democratic world law is implicit within our emerging human holism. We can, of course, derail this process through environmental collapse or nuclear war, but the potential for harmony and unity in diversity of a nonviolent planetary legal order is at the heart of the emergent ethics of holism and the unity of our human condition.

This new world-peace system will not abolish national administrative and governmental units but will substantially remove the conflict of national partisan interests. National governments under the Earth Constitution function more like states within the US or Pradesh within India. Holistic law recognizes that the cooperative governing of everyone together engenders “positive freedom,” a freedom for each that is so much greater than the so-called “freedom” of isolated units trying to serve egoistic interests while in conflict with others and while resisting governmental authority. The nations and peoples of Earth will begin working together in ways deemed unimaginable during most of modern history since the Renaissance. The redemption of humanity from war, chaos, and self-destruction requires that we unite together under a global social contract. Capitalism and sovereign nation-states as institutions bring out our potential for fear, greed, conflict, and lust for power. They lead people to thoughts and actions presupposing external relationships, rather than internal (moral) relationships.

A social democratic world government will bring out our potential for cooperation and mutual participation. The League of Nations was supposed to be a place for nations to talk out their differences and the world’s problems rather than go to war, but such a nonbinding framework for militarized sovereign nation-states in aggressive economic competition with one another will necessarily fail to fulfill that purpose. The same thing is true of the United Nations with its undemocratic and powerless General Assembly and Security Council veto. Under the system of sovereign nations, the General Assembly becomes little more than a forum for ideology, posturing, and recrimination, not a forum for genuine dialogue, and clearly not a public space for effective use of human intelligence to address global problems.

To actualize the universal a priori rule of law implicit in human sociality, rationality, and morality, we must begin with these presuppositions. You cannot succeed by presupposing precisely what prevents universal law from actualizing itself, namely, sovereign nation-states and unrestrained global economic competition. That is why the Constitution for the Federation of Earth must be the presupposition of our endeavors to create a world parliament, a world court system, and to initiate the rule of universal positive law for humanity. By presupposing the holism and universality of law in all our endeavors(symbolized and concretized in the Earth Constitution), we bring our concrete, particular activities in the current state of fragmentation into a transformed actuality that recognizes our common humanity.

Legitimate sovereignty belongs to humankind, not to fragmented militarized state territories. Legitimate sovereignty is embodied in the Earth Constitution, resulting in the embrace of humanity and our planet in a governmental regime of compassionate justice, peace, and ecological sustainability. As philosopher Errol E. Harris expresses this: “If the implications of this scientific revolution and the new paradigm it produces are taken seriously, holism should be the dominating concept in all our thinking” (2000: 90). We must begin with the sovereignty and holism of humanity under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. From that beginning alone, followsthe preservation and redemption of humanity.

Gabel, Peter (2013). Another Way of Seeing: Essays on Transforming Law, Politics, and Culture. New Orleans: Quid Pro Books.
Harris, Errol E. (2000). Apocalypse and Paradigm: Science and Everyday Thinking. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jonas, Hans (1996). Mortality and Morality: A Search for God after Auschwitz. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Küng, Hans (1991). Global Responsibility: In Search of a New World Ethic. New York: Crossroad.
Martin, Glen T. (2010). A Constitution for the Federation of Earth: With Historical Introduction, Commentary and Conclusion.
Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press. On line at:
________ (2016). One World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation Through and Global Social Contract. Appomattox, VA:
Institute for Economic Democracy Press.
Speth, James Gustave (2005). Red Sky at Morning: America and the Crisis of the Global Environment. New Haven: Yale University
Swimme, Brian and Berry, Thomas (1992). The Universe Story – From the Primordial Flaring Forth to the Ecozoic Era, A Celebration of
the Unfolding of the Cosmos. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco.
(Glen T. Martin is professor of philosophy and chair of Peace Studies at Radford University. He is President of the World
Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA) and a 2013 Laureate of the GUSI Peace Prize International.)

The Uniqueness of Islam and the Earth Constitution

(presented at conference on “Reconfiguring Interfaith & Intra-faith Unverstanding”
Future of Islam, Aligarth, India, 17 December 2015)

(1) The Unique Selfhood of Islam?

According to wisdom-teacher and scholar of religion, Fritjof Schuon, “Islam is the meeting between God
as such and man as such.” God as such is the creator, revealer, the Absolute. Man as such is theomorphic
form, transcendent intelligence, and free will. Man is a “dual receptacle made for the Absolute and able
to receive “the truth of the Absolute” and “the law of the Absolute.” These “two doctrines” of the
Absolute and man are reflected in “the two testimonies of the Islamic faith, the first (Lā ilaha illā ‘ Llāh)
concerning God and the second (Muhammadun’ rasūlu ‘ Llāh) concerning the Prophet. Thus Islam
embodies “the Truth of the Absolute” and bequeaths to man “the Law of the Absolute” (1986: 13).

The development of human knowledge and scholarship has brought to light among thoughtful people
everywhere the apparent fundamental relativity of the perspectives and assumptions behind the world’s
great religions. Every religion traditionally assumed that its perspective embraced the truth of the cosmos
and our human situation. However, with the development of cross-cultural understanding, comparative
religious scholarship, and the accounts of the development of human civilization as a whole, people began
to question these claims to exclusive truth and to search for deeper relationships and unity among the
great religions of the world.

Obvious similarities and recurrent themes came to light. The astonishing similarity of the claims of
mystics from each religion came to light. Comparative studies have been made of the writings of Sufi
mystics, Christian mystics, Hindu and Buddhist mystics. Scholars like Fritjof Schuon began to speak of “the
transcendental unity of the religions” (1984). Scholars like John Hick (2004) began to use the image of the
religions ascending many different paths up the same mountain.

However, there may be a danger in the so-called “deep ecumenism” that sees all the religions as
ultimately perspectives on the same divine reality. Are the great religions in the world somehow
interchangeable? Are the great religions of the world interchangeable with one another so that ultimately
one simply can choose whatever religion one likes according to personal taste? I did not feel that this
was true when I worshipped in the Blue Mosque in Istanbul two years ago. Rather, I felt the immense
force of the uniqueness of Islam.

I believe that the task of inter-religious dialogue goes deeper than this. It may well be that each of
the world’s great religions expresses something about the Absolute, the Divine, that is not translatable
nor reducible to the expressions of the other great world religions, something that is vital to be preserved
and protected. It may be that something of what is absolutely unique and valuable about Islam is
crystalized in the two fundamental testimonies: Lā ilaha illā ‘ Llāh and Muhammadun’ rasūlu ‘ Llāh.

I want to draw an analogy here with some ideas in the study of advanced spirituality that are being
developed by the Integral Institute in the United States in collaboration from scholars and visionaries from
around the world. One of these thinkers, Marc Gafni, distinguishes our human “egoic self” from our “True
Self,” and from our “Unique Self” (2014: 10-11). The egoic self in which a person identifies with his or her
unique, selfish interests and lives a life in what some of the great religions called “sin” is almost universally
repudiated by these religions, including Islam. Within Islam the priority of the egoic self would appear to
be Gahflah, forgetting, and the priority of the five pillars of Islam would appear directed against the
perpetual tendencies of the egoic self toward forgetting, heedlessness.

In the process of growth toward spiritual maturity and enlightenment, we move from “egocentric
love, care, and concern” to “ethnocentric” love, care, and concern regarding our community and our
culture, to “worldcentric” love, care, and concern” for all humanity. A yet higher level of spiritual
realization occurs when we move beyond the worldcentric to the “kosmocentric” level of love, care, and
concern, or, I might add, in the language of Islam, to a “theocentric level.” The kosmocentric realization
is described by Gafni as follows:
At this level of consciousness, you realize that you are an irreducibly unique expression of the love intelligence
and love beauty that is the initiating and animating Eros of all-that-is, which lives in you, as you, and through
you. The Universe is having a You experience. You are not separate from the Universe at all, even as you are
a distinct expression of all-that-is…. The ultimate realization of an expanded state of consciousness is a shift in
the understanding of one’s true nature or essential identity, particularly the classical realization that one is not
merely a separate self, but a True Self. True Self is the singular that has no plural, the total number of True
Selves being one. Unique Self in its fullest expression is the unique perspective of the True Self, and it is,
therefore, a fully self-realized state of consciousness. (2014: 11)
The words of Jelaluddin Rumi may express this sense of the True Self:
Not Christian or Jew or Muslim, not Hindu, Buddhist, sufi, or zen. Not any religion or cultural system. I am not
from the East or the West….I am not an entity in this world or the next, did not descend from Adam or Eve or
any origin story. My place is placeless, a trace of the traceless. Neither body or soul. (1995: 32)
Such mysticism is an essential component of the stories of all the great world religions. It points us
to an ineffable One, to the absolute mystery of God, the Infinite, the Transcendent, a One beyond duality,
that can be experienced by Sufis and other mystics.

However, in the language of my recent book One World Renaissance, we know today (so much more
clearly than in past centuries when the great religions of the world were founded) that our universe
involves an evolutionary holism, emerging from creation with a telosto actualize freedom, self-awareness,
love, harmony, justice, and truth. We know today that human life continues to evolve on this planet
through ever-greater levels of understanding and consciousness. We know today that everything evolves:
from the cosmos itself to galaxies, to planets, to living creatures, to human consciousness emerging into
ever-higher levels. Even the great religions of the world are evolving in their self-understandings.

Our “True Self”—the oneness of all persons and things within the vast immanent Infinity by which th
being of the world and all creatures hangs by a golden threat suspended from the Absolute—can no longer
be considered the end of the matter. The world is not simply an illusion covering this True Self. What is
the divine meaning of cosmic evolution? What is the meaning of consciousness growth in our human
species? What is the meaning of consciousness growth in each of us as individual persons? We need to
take into account not only the divine ground of being but the evolutionary upsurge of being. The universe
is not merely the maya proclaimed by some forms of Hinduism, not merely illusion or a magical dream.

The universe, as the great Western religions of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity always insisted, is a
created, finite reality with meaning and purpose of its own. Existence is not merely a dream laying over
the True Self like silent fog in the early morning hours. Existence is a created reality, and each of us is a
very real manifestation of that reality.

As I understand it, Gafni, in the above quote, is bringing these two realizations together, in some
respects, with his notion of the Unique Self. The True Self, which is universal and one, is manifested in
this concrete embodiment “as a distinct expression of all-that-is.” Each of us is a unique child of the
Absolute, a unique perspective of the True Self. We can grow to this advanced level of self-understanding:
the True Self manifested as a Unique Self. Perhaps the astonishing testimonies of Islam are pointing to
this realization: Lā ilaha illā ‘ Llāh and Muhammadun’ rasūlu ‘ Llāh.

It may be that each of the great world religions could be envisioned as an expression of some aspect
the unique selfhood of the True Self as manifested in a culturally formed and uniquely historically
manifested Unique Self. It may be that Islam pointsto the unique integrity of human selfhood understood
as theomorphic, understood as the evolving Kosmos come to consciousness of itself in the uniqueness of
theomorphic personhood, a personhood not diminished by some original sinfulness or incapacity, but
theomorphically structured with a transcendental intellect that can recognize the truth of the divine and
the law of the divine. In my view, one aspect of interreligious dialogue should be to explore such

But how to bring the “Unique Selfhood” of Islam to the world? Our world is rife with fundamentalism
within all religious traditions that insist on the absolute incommensurability of their views. Our world is
divided into giant corporate power centers using their wealth and privilege to exploit the poor, maximize
profits for themselves, and commodify all human relationships into inhuman monetary interactions. And,
third, our world is divided into some 193 militarized nation-states locked in an unending cycle of collective
egoism, violence, destruction, fear, and animosity. Fundamentally these three things (fundamentalism,
multinational corporations, and militarized sovereign nation-states) have locked the contemporary world
into a nightmare of chaos, violence, injustice, commodification, poverty, and misery.

There can be no renaissance for Islam, nor for humanity, within this sort of worldwide corruption and
disintegration. Our planet and its citizens sink ever-deeper into perdition, poverty, climate collapse, and
the threat of apocalyptic nuclear wars. In order to foster a renaissance for Islam, we must make possible
a renaissance for all humanity. In the early 21st century we now understand that it must be everyone or
it will be no one. We are all human beings living on this planet together and we must act together to save
our present world from disaster and to create a viable world system for future generations to inherit. We
must ratify the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

(2) Fostering a Paradigm-shift through the Earth Constitution

The Constitution for the Federation of Earth was written by hundreds of world citizens, working
through a drafting committee of 25 scholars, over a period of 23 years from 1968 to 1991. It was brilliantly
written to promote a planetary framework of unity in diversity and to guarantee all persons the right to
live in peace and brotherhood on the Earth. The Constitution proclaims that the people of Earth are
sovereign and that the non-military government must serve the common good of all persons, a common
good that includes military disarmament and preservation of our planetary ecology.

In his book, Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective, C.G. Weeramantry (former Supreme
Court Judge in Sri Lanka and later Judge on the International Court of Justice at the Hague) attests that
the concept of Shari’a is larger than a mere legal system. The Shari’a embraces religious duties, “cult and
ritual,” as well as legal rules in the narrower sense. (1999: 1). Concerning the Islamic concept of law,
however, this book also reproduces “the farewell sermon of the Prophet Mohammad at Arafat.”
Weeramantry correctly comments on this sermon that the Prophet affirms a universalism or brotherhood
of humankind under God: free of racism, domination, exploitation, or degradation. (Ibid. 62).

Weeramantry’s book also reproduces the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights formulated
by the Islamic Council of Europe in 1981. On the basis of the Qur’an and the tradition of Islam, this
document details universal human rights to life, freedom, equality, justice, a fair trial, protection against
abuse of power, protection against torture, protection of honor and reputation, rights of minorities, right
to participate in public affairs, the right to freedom of belief, thought, and speech, right to freedom of
religion, the right to free association, and the right to a just and equitable economic order (ibid. 178-180).

The set of rights articulated in this Universal Islamic Declaration is astonishingly similar to the rights
specified in Articles 12 and 13 of the Earth Constitution. This Constitution provides a framework by which
human beings can overcome today’s threefold corruptions of fundamentalism, militarized sovereignties,
and corporate capitalism. It establishes a social democracy for the Earth in which “the earth’s total
resources shall be equitably used for human welfare,” in which peace and disarmament are established
and protected by enforceable laws, and in which the fear, hate, and ignorance behind all forms of
fundamentalism can be lifted through universal education and a transparently just and enlightened world

Of special note is the creation by the Earth Constitution of a planetary public banking system that will
foster practices of universal commercial integrity and actualize the Qur’anic proscription against usury
(Qur’an II: 278-9). Like the maintenance of public roads on behalf of the common good of society, the
Earth Financial Administration under the Earth Constitution will maintain global public banking for the
common good of the people of Earth, either eliminating interest or reducing interest to a bare minimum
to cover the administrative costs of making loans that promote innovation, job creation, ecological
regeneration, and human welfare in general (Article 8.7). Multinational corporations will be controlled by
law and their operations directed to the service of humanity and not the private wealth of the one percent.
And the nation-states will be disarmed by law, leaving the administration and enforcement of laws to the
civilian world police who are themselves required to obey the law.

A world of brotherhood will emerge premised explicitly on the constitutional principle of unity in
diversity and making possible a spiritual renaissance for humanity. As the Islamic tradition understands
so well, I believe, the legal and the spiritual dimensions of human life are dialectically intertwined. If we
can establish a global legal system that protects freedom, peace, justice, and sustainability, this in itself
will foster the spiritual dimension in which people recognize their theomorphic structure and begin to live
their lives ever-more fully in in the light of God. In his book, Creating a Future Islamic Civilization, professor
Rashid Shaz declares:

A true Islamic civilization is neither eastern nor western, neither Arab, nor Chinese or Indian but an authentic amalgam of all believing nations, comprising all colours and races, an international brotherhood or sisterhood of submitters. In Islam there is no male and female, no black and no white, no easterner and no westerner but only the awakened and the spiritually dead. And it is the duty of the awakened souls to bring the dead to life….
We Muslims do not claim monopoly on submission although we are aware of our very unique position as
upholders of the Last Revelation. (2008: 10-11)

In my view, the Unique Selfhood of Islam absolutely needs to be expressed within the on-going
dialogue of human civilization and interfaith understanding. What Islam has to teach us is unique and
vitally necessary within the evolutionary upsurge of the human spirit. Those who know “submission” (elIslam) must show us what both submission and “standing upright” symbolically mean: standing upright
with the courage and integrity to recognize our theomorphic structure that can serve as the dual
receptacle for the “truth of the Absolute” and the “law of the Absolute.”

Only democratic world law under the Earth Constitution will make this contribution of Islam possible,
and the support of Muslims for the Earth Constitution will speak volumes about the Islamic understanding
of the need for universal law, universal brotherhood, and the unity in diversity of all the world’s citizens.
May our True Selves (the oneness of all humanity) be expressed in our Unique Selves, so that we may live
as theomorphic expressions of the kosmos and the divine Absolute.

Works Cited:
Gafni, Marc (2014). Self in Integral Evolutionary Mysticism: Two Models and Why They Matter. Tucson,
AZ: Integral Publishers.
Hick, John (2004). An Interpretation of Religion: Human Responses to the Transcendent. New Haven: Yale
University Press.
Martin, Glen T. (2016). One World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation Through a Global Social
Contract. Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press.
Rumi, Jelaluddin (1995). The Essential Rumi. Coleman Barks and John Moyne, trans. San Francisco: Harper
San Francisco.
Schuon, Frithjof (1986). Understanding Islam, London: Unwin Paperbacks.
Shaz, Rashid (2008). Creating a Future Islamic Civilization, New Delhi: Milli Publications.
Weeramantry, C.G. (1999). Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective. Sri Lanka: Sarvodaya
Vishva Lekha.

Patterns of Thought and Human Survival: Holism vs Fragmentation

Climate disruption is dawning upon even the most close-minded of human beings. The
proliferation and growing possibility of planetary devastation through weapons of mass
destruction is beginning to dawn upon even the most close-minded military fanatics. Careful
assessment of possible human futures gives us a bleak picture indeed. Even a Bernie Sanders,
who is giving momentary hope to tens of millions of ordinary Americans, is not capable of
transforming the overall assessment of a bleak and possibly hopeless human future.

In October 2015, the UN announced its new development goals, now called “Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs)” to serve as a guide for all nations until 2030. These replace the
failed Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that were in effect from 2000 to 2015. The
Guardian reported that these new goals address the inadequate assumptions behind the failed
earlier goals: “While the MDGs, in theory, applied to all countries, in reality they were
considered targets for poor countries to achieve, with finance from wealthy states. Conversely,
every country will be expected to work towards achieving the SDGs. The new agenda, with 17
sustainable development goals at its core, recognizes that ending poverty must go hand-in-hand
with a plan that builds economic growth and addresses a range of social needs, while tackling
climate change.”

Recently scientists have revealed that the amount of heat in the oceans has doubled since
1997, in a mere 20 years, with immense unknown consequences for life in the oceans and by
implication for all life upon the Earth [1]. Meanwhile Vladimir Putin said he “hopes nuclear
warheads will not be needed to deal with terrorists or anyone else, after Russia launched cruise
missiles from its submarine at Syria” [2] The threat to human existence from both these sources
is no longer even veiled or repressed by the media: the possibility of the end of the human
civilization project as we have known it is very real and immanent.

However, at the same time a great hope of a fundamental paradigm shift has arisen among a
small portion of humanity, a paradigm-shift that I examine at length in my newest book One
World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation through a Global Social Contract (2016).
For more than a century now, since the scientific revolutions initiated by the work of Albert
Einstein and Max Planck, scientists have been confirming and elucidating the holism of the
universe and all the differentiated forms of existence within it—from galaxies to star-systems,
to planets like the Earth, to the evolution of life, to the ecosystem of the Earth, to the oneness
of humanity as a single species of homo sapiens.

Science has discovered that the universe is a single whole, systematically differentiated into
innumerable parts. It has discovered that the universe is composed of levels or “fields” of
overlapping wholeness, that every whole is necessarily differentiated by parts but that those
parts cannot be understood apart from the wholes that make them what they are [3]. However,
this is the crucial point: science has shown that every part in the universe is inseparable from
the wholes of which it is a part, and science has shown that one cannot understand any part
within the universe without comprehending the wholes within which it is a part.

It is precisely these insights that have not yet dawned on most human thought processes. We
continue to focus on the parts independently of the wholes, and we continue to begin with the
parts and operate from them. The new Sustainable Development Goals presented by the UN to
the world in October contain the same failed assumption: that these are goals to be pursued by
some 193 independent member states of the United Nations. That is why the SDGs will fail and
the planetary environment will continue to collapse: because the ecosystem of the Earth is one
interconnected whole and it cannot be addressed through the independent actions of some 193
independent parts. It must be addressed as a whole, by humanity acting as a whole, or we will
not have a climate that sustains human life by the end of this century.

Similarly, news sources are now seriously proposing that “World War Three could start
tomorrow” [4]. If World War Three begins tomorrow it will mean the end of human civilization.
All scientific accounts of the effects of a major nuclear war agree on that. Yet we continue to
think from the parts, and think in terms of the parts, and in this process we never get anything
but more parts: more fragmentation—militarized nation-states confronting one another,
competing with one another, skirmishing with one another. An ever-increasing emphasis on
“homeland security” (whether in India, from which I just returned, or Russia or Britain, or the
U.S.): every nation hunkering down on its “security” and military preparedness.

Science has shown that our planetary ecosystem is a whole, that human beings are a whole,
and that human civilization is a holistic process of evolution all over this planet. And it is
precisely these wholes that make possible an entirely new way of being (involving harmony and
interdependence) and new way of understanding our situation. But instead we hunker down on
the fragmentations, on the parts, under the illusion that this madness of fragmentation can
somehow ensure our security and our future. This is exactly the opposite of what a century of
science tells us we should be doing.

I took the photo above earlier this month of an overpass in Bangalore, India. It is symbolic of
the point I am making. It correctly states that “destroying nature today” will lead to a “disastrous
future someday.” Then it shows a green trash receptacle to the right as if throwing trash in that
receptacle can possibly make a difference to that impending disastrous future. The problem of
climate collapse is not addressed by individuals throwing trash in receptacles, nor by concerned
nations trying to limit their CO2 emissions. It can only be addressed if we begin thinking in terms
of the whole system, the entire unsustainable system of the Earth.

The Constitution for the Federation of Earth begins from the wholeness of humanity and
civilization and shows how the parts (persons and nation-states) can and should be integrated
into one harmonious and interdependent system of mutual thought, discussion, and decisionmaking. It establishes a World Parliament made up of representatives of the people of the
world, the nations of the world, and “counsellors” chosen by the people and nations for their
knowledge and wisdom to represent the whole of the world. Through a carefully planned and
step by step process, it eliminates all weapons of war from the nations of the world. Through
an integrated and scientifically informed process, it ensures environmental sustainability for all
economic, commercial, and consumer activities of the people of Earth.

In other words, the Earth Constitution begins with the wholes of which we are all necessary
parts: the wholeness of humanity, the wholeness of civilization, and the wholeness of our
planetary ecosystem. The Earth Constitution embodies the holistic wisdom of a century of
scientific thought. The only possibility for human survival and creating a decent future for our
children comes from thinking in terms of these wholes, and deriving our economic, political, and
consumer actions from these wholes. The parts fall into their proper places within the harmony
of the wholes when we begin in this way. If we begin with the parts (my nation, my private
property, my company, my religion, my ethnicity, my race) then we inevitably will fail as a
species and as human beings.
The 14th session of the Provisional World Parliament just took place in Kolkata, India,
December 27-29th. The Parliament operates under Article 19 of the Earth Constitution. In other
words, the Parliament begins with the whole of humanity and our planetary ecosystem and
operates from that wholeness. We passed two major World Legislative Acts: one merging the
entire UN system into the Earth Federation under the Constitution and another creating a Global
Sustainability Directorate (GSD) that integrates all UN and international organizations working
for sustainability into a single organizational whole, encouraging cooperation and an integrated
approach to saving our collapsing environment [5].
The UN’s current set of Sustainable Development Goals are neither adequate (in terms of
what needs to be done if we want to survive climate collapse), nor are they achievable under

the current UN Charter that is merely a treaty of militarized sovereign nation-states in a
competitive and conflictive relationship to one another. The UN Merger Act and its
complementary Global Sustainability Directorate lay down the pattern for the holistic thought
and action that are necessary if we want to end world militarism and create for ourselves a
decent, sustainable future on this planet. These legislative acts think holistically, just as the
Earth Constitution establishes a holistic world system based on the realities that science has
discovered: the holism of humanity and our planetary ecosystem.

There is no other way into the future. We must begin thinking and acting holistically now, or
we will only further descend into chaos and mutual destruction on this planet. We need to study
and promote the Constitution for the Federation of Earth in every possible venue and forum.
We need to be thinking about it and how to actualize it in every aspect of our workplaces, our
lives, our politics, and our scientific endeavors. The entire future is at stake: either we think and
act holistically or we end up destroying both ourselves and our precious planetary home.
(Glen T. Martin is President of the World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA),
professor of philosophy and chair of the Peace Studies Program at Radford University in Virginia,
and author of ten books on human liberation, earth federation, and the development of
democratic world law.)

[1], 18 January 2016.
[2], 9 December 2015.
[3] See, e.g., Harris, Errol E. Apocalypse and Paradigm: Science and Everyday Thinking, 2000.
[4], 30 January 2016.
[5] These can be found at

The Passing of Dr. Reinhart Ruge

In Memorandum
The Ending of the Era of the Great Founders of WCPA

Dr. Reinhart Ruge passed away peacefully in his beloved Tepotzlan, Mexico, on March 9, 2016. It is
with deep regret and great fondness for his memory that I wish to write these few words in his honor.
The World Constitution and Parliament Association was founded by Philip and Margaret Isely in
1958 with the goal of orchestrating the writing of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth and
bringing our agonized planet toward a lawful and just order of peace and sustainability. They soon
recruited like-minded people from around the world: leaders and thinkers who understood the
tremendous significance of this endeavor to create a decent world system for all humankind.

One of the earliest leaders to join this visionary project was Reinhart Ruge who, early on, became
Co-President of WCPA with A. B. Patel, who was then General Secretary of World Union, the like-minded
organization founded by Sri Aurobindo and based in Pondicherry, India. After the passing of Patel,
Reinhart was joined as Co-President by Dr. Terence P. Amerasinghe, international lawyer from Colombo,
Sri Lanka, who served WCPA and the people of Earth as Co-President and then as President of WCPA
until his death in 2007. After the untimely passing of Margaret Isely in 1996, Philip Isley continued to
lead WCPA as Secretary-General until his retirement in 2003. He passed away in 2012.

In one of my phone conversations with Reinhart, who by then had retired from active WCPA work
to become its “Honorary President for Life,” we together recognized that he would be the last survivor
of the three great original leaders of this movement. Even after his request to retire from active
leadership of WCPA that he made at the 6th session of the Provisional World Parliament in Bangkok in
2003, I regularly spoke with him on the phone about our work and often sought his advice. With the
passing of Reinhart, WCPA has moved into a new era. Its historical roots have become textbook history,
and its contemporary work has moved into new dimensions with new personalities from around the

Like Isely and Amerasinghe, Reinhart had been deeply affected by the massive devastation of World
War II and wanted to help the world convert from a war system to a peace system that could prevent
the self-extermination of human beings. He began corresponding with Philip Isely in Denver Colorado in
the early 1960s. The plan to begin writing a Constitution for the Earth at that time involved coming
together in an international meeting in Interlaken, Switzerland, and Wolfach, Germany, in 1968, which
Reinhart attended. The meeting had a lasting impact on all who participated. As Reinhart writes in his
autobiography Profiles of Lord Reinhart:

It was an extraordinary meeting from its conception. Never before in the history of mankind had this happened. How could people from so many continents, countries, religions, languages and the like come together on their own, and express that they wanted to have a better world by deciding upon a democratic world government. It sounded like heresy. When I told my father-in-law, a very educated and honest Dutch lawyer, he just shook his head. He said, “But this is against the law, you cannot do it.” So this means we cannot do it, will never do it, and have to wait till the world falls to pieces with its present structure. But the World Constitution and Parliament Association is acting, and is doing it, and has prepared for a new world without war, or if we would prefer to disappear from the surface of this planet, which will most likely happen soon under our current conditions. (423)

This passage reflects the good common sense and visionary intelligence of Reinhart. To him, as for Isely and
Amerasinghe and so many others, the project of creating an Earth Constitution and establishing a democratic
peace system for the Earth was simply plain practical thinking. For the first time in history, people were actually taking the initiative to consciously protect future generations and create a decent world for all God’s children. At this first Constituent Assembly, Reinhart was elected Chairman of the drafting committee of 25 persons and helped lead work on the Constitution for nearly 10 years until a serviceable draft was ready to present at the second Constituent Assembly in Innsbruck, Austria, in 1977. As Reinhart put it in his autobiography: “Wolfach was the real beginning of the attempt to create a stable world, which would save future generations from war and misery” (305). Reinhart (right) with India Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Terence Amerasinghe (center).

I first came to know Reinhart well immediately following the fourth session of the Provisional World
Parliament that took place in Barcelona, Spain, in 1996. I had rented a car prior to the Parliament and the
proposal was made after the Parliament to drive north through Spain, France, and Belgium, to Holland where
Reinhart wished to visit his former wife and other friends. We drove together with Yogi Shanti, the spiritual
advisor to WCPA, one of Yogi’s disciples (a lawyer from Philadelphia) and an itinerant holy man and drifter called Sharon Das. There is a photo of Reinhart, Yogi Shanti, and Philip Isely at the high table of this session of
Parliament on my website at

Being new to WCPA, I was impressed with its internationally travelled, experienced, and knowledgeable
leaders at the forth session of the Parliament, who included Dr. Terence Amerasinghe and Reinhart. Reinhart
spoke the languages of each of these countries that we drove through. He arranged wonderful places for us to
stay (for free) due to his many connections with world federalists and internationalist peoples of all sorts. That trip introduced me to the society of truly “world citizens,” people of great culture and global perspectives, devoted in a variety of ways to making our world into a decent peace system for all its children. Reinhart was our guide and host wherever we went, a personality transcending every culture and nationalism yet very comfortable within them all.

From that time on as a member of the Executive Council of WCPA, I was regularly in touch with Reinhart, as
I was also with Philip Isely and Terence Amerasinghe. There would be meetings at World Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, and then the 5th session of the Provisional World Parliament in Malta in 2001. As noted above, Reinhart retired in Bangkok at the sixth session of the parliament to become Honorary President for Life, where I became Secretary-General and Terence became President of WCPA. Upon Terence’s death in 2007, I became President and Dr. Eugenia Almand became Secretary-General. From 2003 on, I would regularly call Reinhart at his estate in Tepotzlan to discuss WCPA activities and hear his thoughts on how to proceed.

He was a person of extraordinary life-long accomplishments. He interacted with kings, presidents, and prime
ministers with the grace and culture of someone born for leadership and vision. His commitment and vision were presented in ways that were not threatening to them but appealed to their idealism and hope. He spoke languages fluently and travelled the world effortlessly in the service of humanity and a decent future for our
precious planet Earth. For me it what a great honor to know and work with him.

In 2005, Reinhart hosted an Institute on World Problems seminar in Tepotzlan that included Eugenia,
Terence, his wonderful daughter, Tiahoga Ruge, and her husband, Fernando Ortiz Monasterio, both of whom I
met there for the first time. It became clear to me why Reinhart loved this valley, this family, and his life in this extraordinary, international Mexican community. Reinhart introduced me to a local religious artist from whom I purchased a large charcoal drawing of St. Frances that now hangs on the wall in our New York State home. Each time I look at this drawing, I think of Reinhart and his extraordinary life. He lived a life in the service of humanity and the vision of world peace. He was a great leader and a great friend. He will be sorely missed, and he will never be forgotten.

Love, Cosmic Holism, and Democratic World Law

The urgent need for spiritual transformation on the Earth is directly linked to the urgent need for structural and institutional transformation. That is the most general thesis of my newest book One World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation Through a Global Social Contract. In the vast literature addressing our many interconnected planetary crises and our endangered future, there are two broad schools of thought that do not often intersect with one another. There are those who promote love and spiritual transformation as the key to addressing our planetary crises and there are others who insist that our global institutions such as neoliberal capitalism and militarized sovereign nation-states must be structurally transformed.

I argue that both are absolutely necessary and equally fundamental. We should be working for structural
transformation of our violent and brutal world disorder and we should be simultaneously working to develop our potential for love and compassion towards all other people as well as all living creatures. The holism of our cosmos has been confirmed by astronomers, cosmologists, and quantum physicists throughout the past century. The implications of this holism have profound consequences for human life. But to really internalize this holism and make it operative in our lives we need love. Strange as it may appear at first, we cannot rightly formulate an epistemology or theory of knowledge without
reflecting on love as a component within human knowing. Knowledge cannot be intelligibly formulated as a human capacity without a concomitant consideration of human maturity, perfection, and liberation, and all of these include love. We may formulate a theory of truth as coherence, but proper perception of coherence itself requires love.

For the coherent universe is also a multidimensional universe, in which some of its dimensions are only accessible through a human holism that includes love. Human consciousness relates to the world as a whole, in which all its elements function together, ideally, in harmony. Love is fundamental to this relationship. Despite the fact that love has different senses and involves a number of related aspects of our lives, Indian sage Rabindranath Tagore points out that there is an important sense in which love is an end in itself:
When we find that that state of Nirvana preached by Buddha is through love, then we know for certain that Nirvana is the highest culmination of love. For love is an end in itself. Everything else raises the question “Why?” in our mind, and we require a reason for it. But when we say, “I love,” then there is no room for the “why”; it is the final answer in itself. (2011: 161-62)

Love can and should be a dimension of our knowing, for through it human consciousness can manifest the creative joy in simply being: knowing as ecstatic consciousness: “Inspired by the breath of the universe,” Tagore writes, “the heart, like a reed sings” (2011: 158). Love in its many dimensions expresses itself in wonder, seeks knowledge and understanding, joins together what is separated, and manifests itself in the simple joy in living, a joy that is often at the same time an intuitive awareness, what I have called an “integrative mysticism” (Martin 2005, Chap. 5).

In An Interpretation of Religion: Human Responses to the Transcendent, philosopher and scholar of world religions John Hick argues not only that the ultimate principle of the universe (which he calls the “Transcendent” or the “Real”) is love, but that the common worldwide criterion by which all the major religions recognize those who know the ultimate reality directly is love or compassion (agape or karuna). Hick quotes key passages from the scriptures of each of the world religions to illustrate this point. He argues that one of the ways that we know the ultimate principle, in addition to reason, direct experience, scriptural testimony, etc., is by seeing it manifested in the saints or holy persons of each of the religions: “Thus the ideal of love, compassion, generosity, mercy has always been a basic factor in the recognition of someone as an authentic mediator of the Real” (2004: 326).

The life of Mohammed, the life of Buddha, or the life of Jesus manifest the Real in human form and speak authentically about the Real to whomever they meet. God is love. The holism of God encompasses all: “inasmuch as you have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, you have done it unto me” (Matt. 25: 40). This holism of love need not be linked up with religion alone. Christian thinker José Miranda in his scholarly work Marx against the Marxists sees the work of Marx on behalf of the oppressed as the work of justice, which means that Marx affirms God because that recognition is necessarily embodied in someone who recognizes the “absolute moral imperative for justice” (1986: 191). To recognize a universal moral imperative for justice is itself a form of love.

Similarly, philosopher William Sadler in Existence and Love: A New Approach to Existential Phenomenology reviews Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology revealing universal structures of human intentionality: the swinging out of ourselves that is the basic mode of human being-in-the-world. Sadler studies a range of literature and psychology to demonstrate that one intentional structure of human existence is love, an insight that changes our conception of human life from the idea of an isolated ego and its development to the relation with others and the community: “From the perspective of love it becomes apparent that the main aim of human life is not to become oneself as an autonomous agent. Man’s existential goal is to transcend his singular self by becoming a person in relation with others. The basic existential structure within which a human being becomes a person is loving coexistence” (1969: 186).

For Sadler, the possibility of such love is part of the very structure of intentionality. Love and the imperative for justice are not subjective, contingent feelings experienced by certain human beings. They are fundamental, objective structures of our being-in-the-world. For Karl Marx, we are estranged from our essential nature, from our communal species being, and the overcoming of that estrangement would mean relationship, solidarity, and love (1972: 124-26). Sadler insists that the intentional structure of love goes beyond even ethics, or, expressed differently, with Hick, we can assert that the ethical criterion is itself love, going beyond the more formal principles of ethics to the real point: not just proper behavior following abstract principles but compassion, solidarity, reconciliation, reunion, and reintegration.

As Sadler concludes, the telos or goal of human life is “loving coexistence,” but loving coexistence transcends simply relating to other people in predominantly formal relationships to an attitude of living in community with other persons, creatures, nature, and the cosmos itself. Spiritual thinker Jiddu Krishnamurti describes this development as the purpose of education: It is only when you are constantly inquiring, constantly observing, constantly learning, that you find truth, God, or love; and you cannot inquire, observe, learn, you cannot be deeply aware, if you are afraid. So the function of education, surely, is to eradicate, inwardly as well as outwardly, this fear that destroys human thought, human relationship and love. (1964, pp. 12-13)

Fear binds us to ourselves or our ethnocentric group, blocking our openness to the deeper springs of inspiration. The function of education is not merely “formal” education but the perpetual process of learning and awakening that should be fundamental to every human life and a process of constant attention, constant mindfulness of one’s inner and outer environment, of the world-process and the miraculous cosmos. This passage is one of the rare places where Krishnamurti uses the word “God,” and it is not insignificant that he uses it in relation to love: “truth, God, or love.”

Fear arises from the sense of being an isolated atom threatened by external forces. The process of learning, and loving, for Krishnamurti, is the negation of fear. It is the swinging out of oneself in a deep attention that transcends even the subject-object split, that “state of silent alertness” in which “there is no division between the person who is aware and the object of which he is aware” (ibid. 203). As with Marx and Sadler, this is not merely a subjective idea, but an actualization of the holistic capacity for awareness that is the miracle of being human. The opening up of ourselves leads to “truth, God, or love,” suggesting that ultimate Reality is itself love. Indeed, some of the thinkers today who recognize the holism of the cosmos identify this holism as love. Unsayability permeates everyday experience, and becomes ever more apparent with non-attached mindfulness, but the ever-growing and evolving self experiences progressively more meaningful forms of love in multiple dimensions. William Johnston writes of agape: “This is the love that is universal, that is going out to the Infinite, that is going out to all

men and women, to enemy as well as to friend; it is a love that brings much human joy” (1981: 125). Cosmologist and spiritual thinker Ervin Laszlo identifies the quantum plenum of contemporary physics with “the Akashic Field” of classical Hinduism. The deep oneness of the plenum and the flowing out of the cosmos reciprocally embrace one another in the dynamic wholeness of reality. Laszlo affirms the absolute imperative to love emerging from this holism: What it takes is to recover the intuitive feeling that we are part of it, that we are connected. So I could say, coming right down to it: it takes love, the deep, embracing feeling of love. Love is the recognition that the other is not other…. I don’t see even the remotest possibility of creating a sustainable and flourishing world on this planet unless we embrace this embracing love….. But this has never happened for mankind as a whole. Yet now it must happen, because we have become a planetary species. We must extend the embracing love that members of families felt for each other to all people on the planet…. Utopia becomes a possibility at this juncture in our history. (2014: 79-80)

The flowing out of the cosmos from the divine core, itself holistic and still manifesting the primal unity, now
experienced as process, order, and structure, perhaps can and should be called love. For theologian Paul Tillich the agape taught by Jesus is not an emotion, nor a purely human form of love. Agape is attributed by Jesus to the love between human beings, between humans and God, and between God and humans. For Tillich love is the “ontological principle” that unites all things (1967: 134). It is the principle of holism: the drive toward the reunion of the separated, the drive of the parts to unite in a higher whole of solidarity and reconciliation.

For Tillich the rituals and beliefs of religion are pointers to this existential experience, itself an ontological encounter, the living experience of love and the authenticity of faith as “ultimate concern.” To be human is to be a beacon for this two-fold nature of love. Perhaps this is why Jesus, drawing together two percepts from his Hebrew scriptures, links these aspects of rational love together in the great commandments of Matthew 22: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it, You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” Theologian Michael von Brück writes: “Interior love of God and exterior love of neighbor are therefore two aspects of one love. The one cannot exist without the other” (1991: 104).

Each of us is an expression of the cosmic love that is focused like a laser beam in human consciousness, and it is only in the holistic realization of this fact (“You shall love the Lord your God.”) that we are capable of genuinely rational love for our neighbor as ourselves. We need to be conscious microcosms of the macrocosm, for this is the very condition of having agape for all, including ourselves. Not recognizing this is to live with a distorted, alienated, and severely limited form of consciousness. And love of oneself is not in principle different from the agape for others. Others are “ends in themselves.”

This basic Kantian formula of respect for “humanity” in myself and others remains the bedrock for holistic ethical reflection. Like myself, others are temporal beings whose fundamental telos is what philosopher Paul Ricoeur calls the “image of humanity” that emerges from our temporal process of growth and learning as an end of intrinsic worth both for myself and for the human project as a whole: “If humanity is what I esteem in another and in myself, I esteem myself as a thou for another…. I love myself as if what I loved were another” (1967: 188-89). Psychologist Erich Fromm expresses this principle of the holism of self and others in similar terms. One’s love, for Fromm, necessarily includes both self and others:
From this it follows that my own self, in principle, is a much an object of my love as another person. The affirmation of my own life, happiness, growth, freedom, is rooted in the presence of the basic readiness of and ability for such an affirmation. If an individual has this readiness, he has it also toward himself; if he can only “love” others, he cannot love at all. (1941: 115)

Martin Buber declares that “man is the crystalized potentiality of existence…. That means that man’s action is
unforeseeable in its nature and extent, and that even if he were peripheral to the cosmos in everything else, he remains the centre of all surprise in the world” (1972: 437-38). Holism and love are not some dreamy idealism incongruent with the reality of the human situation. They are, rather, a deep discernment of the truth of our situation, substantially confirmed by much of 20th century science and by our immense human potential as “the center of all surprise in the

The minds of those who dominate in the power system of sovereign nation-states, the minds in the Pentagon and the militaries of the various countries, are literally alienated, that is out of touch with the reality of our situation. They are mostly operating under assumptions derived from the early-modern paradigm that have been entirely disproved by science and completely discredited by those who see the human situation clearly. The early modern paradigm gave us a cosmos that was atomistic, mechanistic, and deterministic, a world-view that implies the repudiation of ethics and compassion in favor of a so-called political and economic “realism.” The roots of both unrestrained capitalism and the system of militarized sovereign nation-states lie in this early-modern view of the world.

Holism provides us with these “new, unifying concepts of the universe and the social order” as well as “a new attitude toward ourselves.” It shows scientifically the absolute unity of the universe and the relative unities of all the dynamic fields within it, all interdependent and integrated as the processes of evolutionary and historical emergence continue. It shows our unique and central role as microcosms of the macrocosm. It makes possible a rebirth of the one world and spiritual unity of humankind envisioned by the ancient philosophers, saints, and founders of the great religions: Plato, Plotinus, Buddha, Lao Tzu, Baha’u’llah, Lord Krishna, Jesus, Moses, and Mohammed. Alfred North Whitehead concludes that the actualization of love and harmony in the world by human creatures is internalized within “the consequent nature of God” and returns to us from God to influence the course of future events.

For human beings, God is the “lure for feeling, the eternal urge of desire,” and by no means simply an object of reason alone. Our symbolic notion of the Kingdom of God arises from this lure, informing human desire: “It dwells upon the tender elements in the world, which slowly and in quietness operate by love” (1978: 343):
For the kingdom of heaven is with us today…. What is done in the world is transformed into a reality in heaven, and the reality in heaven passes back into the world. By reason of this reciprocal relation, the love of the world passes into the love in heaven, and floods back again into the world. (Ibid. 351)

Ethics, love, intuition, values, religion, and culture are not “merely subjective” reactions to an impartial “objective” reality. There is “great intelligence and purpose in the cosmos,” philosopher Jacob Needleman affirms, and that cosmic intelligence, purpose, and love are also embodied in us (1975: 119). As Spinoza declared in the 17th century, God “forms the essence of the human mind” (Ethics II, xi), and part of this essence is love. Our purposes are to create harmony, reconciliation, integration, respect for human rights and human dignity, the just rule of democratic world law, universal friendships, and loving relationships. In other words, a renaissance: one world reborn on a truly universal scale.

In the face of this imperative, it becomes clear that our global economic system of neoliberal capitalism and our global political anarchy of some 192, mostly militarized, sovereign nation-states derives from a set of assumptions and institutions over the lives of the people on Earth that actively militates against love, compassion, and affirmation of our unity in diversity on this planet. If we are truly one, then we must also be one economically (without absolute winners and losers) and politically (without militarized sovereign nations that recognize no enforceable law above themselves).

We must express our love for humanity, Earth, and for the astonishing divine-anthropic project of the Cosmos
through system transformation encompassing us all. This means one law, one recognition of universal rights and duties for all. From 1968 to 1991, hundreds of world citizens from many countries worked together to write the Constitution for the Federation of Earth (cf. Martin 2010). The Earth Constitution concretizes the unity of humankind in legal, social, spiritual, and cultural forms. Its unity in diversity is the principle of love expressed in institutional form. It not only embodies the unity of love but fosters this spiritual awakening as well. In an important sense, we may say that democratic world law is the 21st century form of love.

There is a dialectic between the structural and the spiritual. Transformation in one area influences the other and viceversa. As Fromm expresses this: “man reacts to changing external situations by changes in himself, and…these psychological factors in their turn help in molding the economic and social process” (1941: 297-98). To promote “a culture of peace” or an alternative lifestyle “off the grid” is not going to be sufficient as action, nor as a model for planetary transformation. “Another world is possible,” as the protest slogan truly proclaims. But it is only truly possible if humanity is united in a planetary community of law, justice, and reasonable economic equity, which is the 21st century form of love.

The way we live our lives in the here and now is intimately and dialectically related to our eschatological possibilities for a transformed future. And this is precisely why sovereign nation-states can never give us peace—they effectively recognize no law above themselves and reserve the right to “interpret” international laws as they see fit. And the U.N., as a treaty of such nations, has clearly failed to give us peace or prevent the collapsing of our environment. It has been colonized by both the power politics of sovereign nations and by globalized corporate capitalism. Sovereign nations are forever compromising with evil—the evil that they themselves dialectically generate. The present world anti-system perpetuates a never-ending cycle of violence and corruption. It militates against compassion, love, and the principle of unity in diversity.

Only the rule of democratic law, with representatives from all around the world debating the way into the future and how to deal with the multiplicity of our global crises, can give us the peace necessary for both sustainability and human flourishing. A federated Earth is the only practical step that can transform world economics and disarm the world’s powercrazed militarized nation-states, along with their allies the transnational corporations. A federated Earth binds humanity together into a planetary community for the first time, recognizing a common good and linking together the structural and spiritual aspects of our human condition.

The harmonious convergence of spiritual and structural transformation is seen in the work of philosopher Errol E. Harris who characterizes agape as “rational love” (1988: 162-64). The goal inherent in the emergent holistic upsurge of rational love, identified by him and others, can indeed be understood as working toward Kant’s “Kingdom of Ends” or the biblical vision of a Kingdom of God on Earth. But a necessary part of this process, Harris insists (2005), is the foundation of democratic world government. Only the concrete transformation of our global institutions can genuinely open up our higher human possibilities.

The practical organization of societies and communities that flows from the social nature of our humanity
(inseparable from our unique individuality) is itself a product of emergent rational love, a step on the way to the reign of God on Earth. Just so is the overcoming of fragmentation and warring among the nation-state entities of Earth and joining them together under democratic world law, which would manifest a much higher level of rational love. I argue that universal law is inherent in our common human nature. This is why reason, intuition, and love tell us clearly that the only legitimate form of government is non-military democratic government, founded on the equality, freedom, and dignity of all.

Those who live fully and maturely have no need to exploit or dominate others. They have no need to reify the
capitalist economic system with the pretense that “these are the objective laws of economics and I am not responsible for living off the labor and misery of others.” Rational love tells us differently. We are morally responsible for both the economic-social order that allows us to live off the unpaid labor of others and the world’s disorder of sovereign nationstates that perpetuates endless wars and violence. Those who live from a mature holistic love also refuse to participate in the militarized madness that characterizes the fragmentation of our precious planet into some 192 substantially incommensurable political entities.

This alone can give us a world where the common good of social democracy and integrated harmony becomes the dominant motivation in every mature human life. And reason tells us clearly that ultimately the only legitimate form of democratic government itself is non-military democratic world government, since the holistic telos of rational love cannot be realized at the level of sovereign nation-states, nor can it be realized in an anarchic world without the rule of just and enforceable law. As Laszlo declares: “Utopia becomes a possibility at this critical juncture of our history.” As Buber insists:
“Man is the crystalized potentiality of existence.” Reason, intuition, and love point forward to a social democratic federation for Earth, a basic precondition for a 21st century holistic renaissance. And the Constitution for the Federation of Earth becomes both a blueprint and an ideal around which we can organize our vision of a transformed future for the Earth and humanity.

Works Cited:
Brück, Michael von (1991). The Unity of Reality: God, God-Experience and Meditation in the Hindu-Christian Dialogue. James V. Zeitz,
trans. New York: Paulist Press.
Buber, Martin (1972). “The Question of the Single One.” In Joseph J. Kockelmans, ed. Contemporary European Ethics: Selected
Readings. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company.
Fromm, Erich (1941). Escape from Freedom. New York: Rinehart & Company.
Harris, Errol E. (1988). The Reality of Time. Albany: State University of New York Press.
_______ (2005). Earth Federation Now: Tomorrow is Too Late. Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press.
Hick, John (2004). An Interpretation of Religion: Human Responses to the Transcendent. Second Edition. New Haven: Yale University
Johnston, William (1981). The Mirror Mind: Spirituality and Transformation. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Krishnamurti, Jiddu (1964). Think on These Things. New York: Harper & Row.
Laszlo, Ervin (2014). The Self-Actualizing Cosmos: The Akasha Revolution in Science and Human Consciousness. Rochester, VT: Inner
Martin, Glen T. (2005). Millennium Dawn: The Philosophy of Planetary Crisis and Human Liberation. Appomattox, VA: Institute for
Economic Democracy Press.
_______ (2010). A Constitution for the Federation of Earth: With Historical Introduction, Commentary, and Conclusion. Appomattox,
VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press.
_______ (2016). One World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation Through a Global Social Contract. Appomattox, VA:
Institute for Economic Democracy Press.
Marx, Karl (1972). Karl Marx: The Essential Writings. Federic L. Bender, ed. New York: Harper & Row.
Miranda, José (1986). Marx Against the Marxists. The Christian Humanism of Karl Marx. John Drury, trans. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Needleman, Jacob (1975). A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth. Garden City, NY: Doubleday &
Ricoeur, Paul (1967). Fallible Man. Charles Kelbley, trans. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company.
Sadler, William (1969). Existence and Love: A New Approach to Existential Phenomenology. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Tagore, Rabindranath (2011). The Essential Tagore. Fakrul Alam & Radha Chakravarty, eds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Tillich, Paul (1967). Systematic Theology. Three Volumes Collected. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Whitehead, Alfred North (1978). Process and Reality. Corrected Edition. New York: Macmillan.
(Glen T. Martin is professor of philosophy and chair of Peace Studies at Radford University. He is President of the World
Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA) and a 2013 Laureate of the GUSI Peace Prize International.)

The Left Needs a Vision A Response to Chris Hedges, Sheldon Wolin, and Pepe Escobar

Earth Constitution Mandala
“Virtually everything over which we could build a new politics
or a new social theory seems to be an illusion.” Pepe Escobar [1]
1. Overview

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published The Communist Manifesto in 1848. It became the “most widely
read and influential single document of modern socialism” [2]. The document presented the Left with a
focus and a vision that inspired generations of socialists right through the great depression of 1929-39
and into the “New Left” articulated by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) during the late 1960s and

In spite of the widespread knowledge that the Soviet Union embodied a perversion of Marxist
democratic principles, the existence of an apparent counterforce to the global imperialism of corporate
capital emanating from the United States helped sustain socialists around the world, struggling against
oppression, in their quest for justice, democracy, equality, freedom and peace, all fundamental values
of democratic socialism. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s, not only did
the global corporations and their billionaire masters declare victory for their vicious and immoral system,
but many democratic socialists on the left lost their vision of global transformation as well.

The masters of deceit and architects of the “New American Century” deftly replaced the “evil
empire” of the USSR with a perpetual war on global terrorism, now waged by the single, undisputed
“Superpower” with a global scope that abjured all treaties, legal principles, or other civilizational
restraints in an “exceptionalism” that placed global capital and imperial power above all other nations
and peoples, essentially appearing to trash any remaining hope the peoples of Earth might have had for
a world of peace with justice.

One of the results of these developments is that, in the U.S., we have democratic socialist thinkers
and leaders like Chris Hedges and Sheldon S. Wolin who give us profound criticisms of the horrors of the
union of the imperial state with corporate capitalism to create a bloody and merciless drive for global
domination and exploitation in the service of the 1%. They are excellent political analysts. Yet these
thinkers give us no credible vision of how it might really be different except that we need to “resist.”
They offer little hope of triumph, for real transformative change in the face of the overwhelming power
of “inverted totalitarianism” but only the belief that it is “right” to resist, even if it means our death and
destruction (Hedges) [3].

Hedges may be fundamentally correct when he asserts: “But I can promise you that an open and
sustained defiance of global capitalism and the merchants of death, along with the building of a socialist
movement, is our only hope.” [4] And Wolin affirms that “the survival and flourishing of democracy
depends, in the first instance, upon “the “people”’s changing themselves, sloughing off their political
passivity and, instead, acquiring some of the characteristics of a demos” [5]. Indeed, but perhaps not our
“only hope” as I intend to show in this article.

Both of these thinkers speak almost exclusively about the United States—in a world of militarized
sovereign nation-states with lightning fast weapons of mass-destruction. In such a world, democracy is
impossible within any state because there is only chaos at the international level beyond the states:
chaos and the threat of instant destruction unless one maintains a massive secret, ever-ready military.
Democracy is clearly impossible within such pervasive state secrecy and necessity for immediate
executive powers. However, people all around the global are become conscious that we are one world
and one human family.

The values behind democratic socialism, for example, are all found in one form or another in the
great texts of the world religions as in the universal “Golden Rule”: “Do unto others has you would have
them do unto you.” This maxim presupposes human equality, dignity, freedom, and justice [6]. Socialism
rests on fundamental moral truths. It argues that none of these moral values can exist effectively in
society unless economics, politics, and social organization (true democracy) are also based on these

Philosopher Michael Luntley correctly states that socialism makes possible a society based on moral
values and the good life for everyone. Capitalism, he says, destroys these conditions. Capitalism is based
on greed, brutal competition, and the struggle for power: drives that destroy the moral values of human
equality, dignity, freedom, and justice. Under capitalism, he says, we have a society “in which our moral
traditions have been erased by forces inimical to the moral life”[7]

Psychologists and philosophers from Lawrence Kohlberg to Carol Gilligan to Jürgen Habermas have
described human cognitive and moral development from immaturity to maturity. Kohlberg speaks of
maturity as developing an awareness in which moral principles derive from the fundamental laws of the
universe. Gilligan speaks of morally mature men and women becoming “worldcentric” and “integrated”
holistically. Habermas argues that the moral maturity of democratic socialism is implicit in the structure
of human languages [8].

Karl Marx held a progressive philosophy of history: he saw history moving to greater forms of selfawareness and hence toward awareness of the need to abolish all forms of class exploitation. Similarly,
many psychologists and spiritual thinkers today hold a progressive philosophy of human cognitive and
moral development: we human beings are growing in our understanding that we need a world system
based on equality, dignity, justice, freedom, and democracy [9]. The democratic socialist left needs to
recapture the vision of a progressive philosophy of history, a history no-longer simply dictated by a
dialectical class-conflict but nevertheless a history envisioning a real actualization of human potential
and maturity.

After the Enlightenment of the Eighteenth Century, when thinkers like John Locke spoke of the
“natural rights of mankind,” ordinary people around the world began realizing that they too had the
right to be encompassed by a political and economic framework premised on equality, dignity, freedom,
and justice. The organizational form that made these possible, it was then thought, was political
democracy. However, with the on-going development of capitalism that politically institutionalized the
so-called “right to private property,” ordinary people realized by the 19th century that political
democracy without economic democracy was simply continued slavery. Marxism was born, and the
Communist Manifesto soon appeared. Marx understood that “formal, political democracy” was “a great
step forward,” but that human beings could never be free, equal or fulfilled until we have “substantive,
economic and social democracy” [10].

Latin American Liberation Theology, in the documents produced at its great Bishop’s Conferences
beginning in 1968 in Medellin, Columbia, understood that unrestrained capitalism is immoral and that
socialism is implicit in the Christian scriptures. These conferences combined the Biblical prophetic and
Gospel visions of justice and compassion for the poor with a Marxist analysis of why the poor are poor.
Dom Helder Camara of Brazil famously captured this well when he declared: “When I give food to the
poor they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a communist.”

2. Elements of Human Liberation in the Communist Manifesto

The Communist Manifesto asserts that “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
class struggles.” There is a certain very real truth to this vast generalization. Throughout history the few
have always dominated the many, using a variety of ideological justifications for their roles as slave
owners, or members of a religious hierarchy, or as the wealthy and successful who deserve
corresponding political power (e.g., the Citizens United decision of the U.S. Supreme Court), or because
they have secret knowledge of the threats to our security and require undemocratic powers to keep us
safe (Homeland Security and the Pentagon). Marx and Engels assume a broad historical perspective that
includes progressive civilizational development. Even though Wolin goes back to the ancient Greeks in
his account of democracy, very little of this powerful progressive view of human history is found in
Democracy Incorporated or in the work of Hedges.

The Manisfesto continues: “All previous historical movements were the movements of minorities,
or in the interests of minorities. The proletarian movement is the self-conscious, independent movement
of the immense majority, in the interests of the immense majority…. In the national struggles of the
proletarians of the different countries, they point out and bring to the front the common interests of the
entire proletariat, independently of all nationality.” In this visionary statement, Marx and Engels show
their understanding that the struggle is about what Marx termed our “species being,” our common

It is not about dividing the world into some 193 so-called “sovereign” nation-states and then trying
to establish a social democracy in each one, step by step. They understood that capitalism was
globalized, even in the 19th century, and that human liberation must be globalized. Today, with the global
reach of the Empire, no social democratic movement on Earth has much chance of lasting success
because currency manipulations, banker machinations, transnational corporate forces, and superpower
subversion will destroy these attempts in whatever countries they are undertaken. Naomi Klein, for
example, chronicles this process of subversion in Chile, led by the U.S., after democratic socialist Salvador
Allende was elected President in 1970 [11]. When I was in Venezuela this March, we heard much about
the subversion of the democratically elected socialist government that the U.S. was conducting from
nearby Columbia.

Democratic socialism means the realization of moral maturity for humankind. It means the
understanding that human freedom, equality, justice, and peace must be established for humankind as
a whole. We are all brothers and sisters; we are all one. It will mean the growing of humankind to a
mature understanding of our common humanity, our common need for peace, freedom, equality and a
sustainable environment. The U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights already expresses something
of this maturity, but it intimates in Article 28 that we need a new world system that really actualizes this
understanding: “Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms
set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.”

Global capitalism intertwined with the system of so-called sovereign nation-states violates this
right for a decent international order at every turn. Growing to moral maturity simultaneously requires
structural transformation of our fractured and immature institutions: global capitalism intertwined with
the system of militarized sovereign nation-states. The people that dominate us at the heads of global
capitalism and militarized nation-states, by and large, are not the grown-ups. They are primarily morally
bankrupt sociopaths.

The Manifesto declares: “You are horrified at our intending to do away with private property. But in
your existing society, private property is already done away with for nine-tenths of the population; its
existence for the few is solely due to its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths.” What could
be truer than this? I have been travelling internationally since 1992, much of this as President of the
World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA). Everywhere on Earth I see vast poverty
interspersed with pockets of unimaginable wealth. Everywhere I see people in desperation: living
without basic necessities of food, housing, education or healthcare, and living with a degraded and
degrading environment. Four centuries of capitalism, deeply linked with European and North American
imperialism, has been an unmitigated disaster for the people of Earth. And with global climate collapse
it is getting even worse.

What the world needs, of course, is not some blanket threat to “do away with private property” but
to examine the legal nature and limits on property, and on “corporate personhood.” Who could possibly
have the power and authority to do this except a World Parliament representing the sovereignty of the
people of Earth? The world needs an economic system that allows for universal human flourishing within
a sustainable environment. Again, notice that the perspective of Marx and Engels was planetary, focusing
on our common humanity and our common need for conditions which allow people everywhere to
flourish in equality, freedom, justice, and peace. Where and when did socialists go wrong? Where and
when did socialists begin to think that they had to primarily operate within absolute territorial fragments
of humanity called sovereign nation-states?

The Manifesto continues: “We have seen above, that the first step in the revolution by the working
class, is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling class, to win the battle of democracy. The
proletariat will use its political supremacy to wrest, by degrees, all capital from the bourgeoisie, to
centralize all instruments of production in the hands of the State.” Marx and Engels understand that the
battle is about democracy, that you cannot have real political democracy without substantial economic
democracy. Otherwise, worldwide economic slavery is inevitable. Democracy means that political and
economic arrangements are designed for the welfare of the vast majority, not the 1%. No power on
Earth could accomplish this transformation except a World Parliament.

Yet here the Manifesto introduces something that perhaps violates its own principle: it appears to
introduce the possibility of a dictatorship of the Proletariat, violating the fundamental ethical principle
that the moral ends do not justify contradictory means. If the ends are democracy, freedom, equality,
and peace, then the means must utilize these same values. Violent revolution, like dictatorship of the
revolutionary elite, remains an extremely problematic concept. Even the dimwit ideologues in the
Pentagon and State Department should have realized this by now: you cannot impose “democracy” on
some nation after first destroying their cities and killing them. Similarly, we cannot create a liberated
world system through violence and/or dictatorship. Nevertheless, the Manifesto is correct that global
democracy is the goal, not fragmented nation-state democracy (a contradiction in terms) but global
actualization of our human potential for cooperatively establishing justice, equality, freedom, and peace.

The Manifesto ends with these famous words: “In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes
and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the
condition of the free development of all.” In some versions, it added: “Let the ruling classes tremble at
a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to
win. Working men of all countries, unite!” Before the internet and international airborne travel, Marx
and Engels understood that it had to be all or none. And they understood that we are all dependent
upon one another for the possibility of “free development.”

The false ideology that capitalism spews forth about “freedom” (that it consists of “self-made”
capitalists who are somehow more fit for power because they have exploited others to become wealthy)
is as barbaric as it is childish. Ayn Rand’s famous books promoting capitalism represent the outpourings
of a childish moral midget. Whatever qualities or knowledge or skills any of us have derive from the
history of civilization and a complex combination of innumerable social factors. True human freedom
emerges from communities of trust and cooperation. The “free development of each is indeed the
condition of the free development of all.”

3. A New Manifesto for Human Liberation: The Earth Constitution

In the light of postmodern skepticism, grand-master social theories like those of Marx have fallen
upon hard times. The liberating elements in the Communist Manifesto point to elusive truths that
resonate at some level but fail to convince as a final answer. Pepe Escobar’s insight at the head of this
article perhaps signals the death-knell of grand social theory solutions to the immense complexity of our
apparently benighted human condition. The new “Manifesto for Human Liberation” is not a grandmaster social theory, but primarily an Owner’s Manuel, a set of directions (on-line and in print) for
operating Spaceship Earth [12]. Its basic principle is simple enough: do the 99% just want to put their
foot down and say “Enough!” We collectively have the sovereign authority to simply make it illegal for
the 1% to create chaos. We could, if we had the will, simply put them in jail where they belong. This is
the insight that struck me when I first came across the Earth Constitution in 1995.

Although the intellectual roots of democratic world law go back to the ancient Greek and Roman
Stoics, the movement for world federal government became a wide social reality during World War One,
spearheaded by leaders of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom such as Rosika
Schwimmer [13]. Federalism does not abolish the nations, but simply creates a democratic constitution
and hence enforceable law over all, making them all states within the Earth Federation.

Between the wars, world federalism flourished, and the movement became quite widespread after
World War Two. People began to understand that a system of absolute, militarized territorial nationstates, with no enforceable laws above them, was inherently a disaster for humankind. After WMDs
were invented and dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the idea of democratic world government
became a powerful international movement.

The Cold War effectively derailed this movement, but a few visionaries persisted and founded the
World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA) in 1958. Led by a group of dedicated world
citizens, international legal minds, and thousands of supporters from many countries, they organized
four international Constituent Assemblies between 1968 and 1991. At the fourth Constituent Assembly
in Troia, Portugal in 1991, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth was considered complete and
ready for ratification by the people and nations of the Earth. Let me compare the Earth Constitution to
the Communist Manifesto in 8 brief points.

(1) The Constitution recognizes the sovereignty of the people of Earth, superseding the selfcontradictory idea that you can divide the planet into some 193 territorial entities and somehow the
people within these arbitrary boundaries are “sovereign” over their little piece of land. If the people are
to be sovereign, as all credible democratic theory holds, then it must be all the people.

(2) The Preamble to the Constitution presents a progressive view of history and a new paradigm to
supersede the early modern paradigm that developed the fragmented systems of capitalism and
sovereign nation-states. It does not presuppose some grand social theory, but simply that people are
rational enough to see that unity, interrelationships, and democratic organization are better than
fragmentation, endless war, and chaos. The new paradigm that it proclaims involves a holistic
understanding “of the interdependence of people, nations, and all life,” and the realization that security
through military defense is a “total illusion” and that there is an “ever increasing disparity between rich
and poor.”

(3) The Preamble affirms our common humanity simultaneously with respect for diversity as a
foundational framework: “the principle of unity in diversity is the basis for a new age when war shall be
outlawed and peace prevail; when the earth’s total resources shall be used for human welfare; and when
basic human rights and responsibilities shall be shared by all without discrimination.” The detailed
structure for global democracy that it proceeds to set up is nothing short of brilliant in its construction
of a system by which human beings can democratically operate their Spaceship Earth without fear of
sinking into global totalitarianism. This should be studied and seriously discussed everywhere on the

(4) Without ever mentioning the word “socialism,” the Earth Constitution describes the detailed
workings of a democratic system that really does use the Earth’s “total resources for human welfare.” It
provides not only for universal education, nourishing food, adequate housing, clean and sufficient water
supplies for all, but it also sets up the global system to protect the planetary ecology and ensure
sustainability. One key to this transformation within the Constitution is “global public banking,” which is
also one of the goals that are listed in the Communist Manifesto, along with “free education for all
children” and “a heavy progressive income tax.” A global monetary system and public banking are set up
by the Constitution to ensure the common welfare of all the people on Earth.

(5) The planetary transformation to a decent world system based on equality, justice, freedom,
peace, and sustainability is to be achieved nonviolently and democratically, through ratification
procedures as described in Article 17. People, organizations, institutions, and nations can simply just sign
the Constitution and proceed to get it ratified by the popular will.

(6) World law is enforced over every person on Earth by civilian World Police and a civilian office of
Attorneys General. The Communist Manifesto, by contrast, is silent about enforcement after the
revolution. However, historically no major society other than Costa Rica has given up its military, which,
under the current world chaos, is deemed by most as impossible. Civilian police (accountable to obey
the law) are worlds apart from military (blindly obeying orders to kill).

(7) In the first stage of ratification under Article 17 (easily reached), all WMDs are eliminated. In the
second stage, the nations must begin to carefully and systematically demilitarize. In a civilized and
mature world system, there is no need for militaries of any sort. As Mahatma Gandhi declared, military
force is only necessary if there is injustice to protect or someone else’s resources to steal. Eventually, all
investment, design, transport, possession, or deployment of weapons of war will be prosecuted to the
full extent of the law. A peace system arises simply from the potential inherent in enforceable,
democratically legislated laws.

(8) Human rights as specified in detail by Articles 12 and 13 are protected everywhere on Earth by a
globalized office of the World Ombudsmus. The Communist Manifesto does not mention human rights,
considering them a bourgeois invention. But, theories aside, we need an official list of “inalienable” rights
carefully specified and protected. Here we have a vision and a program that the Left can genuinely
believe in.

Social scientists Terry Boswell and Christopher Chase-Dunn write: “Our fundamental starting point
is one of global democracy…. Global democracy assumes a democratic and collective rationality that
promotes greater equality between as well as within countries…. Undemocratic socialism is simply not
socialism regardless of the good intentions of its creators…. The lack of a “utopian” goal against which
to organize criticism and more importantly, to direct progress, has led erstwhile progressives and leftist
intellectuals into the nihilism and endless relativism of postmodernism” [14]. This is precisely the key
function of the Earth Constitution. It is not merely some vague, abstract set of unenforceable ideals like
the “Earth Charter” or the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, nor a grand theory of history like the
Communist Manifesto. It is a concrete blueprint that can be studied and promoted as a real practical
solution to our planetary nightmare.

It can serve the same function as did the Communist Manifesto, without the Manifesto’s serious
flaws of vagueness, theoretical overstatement, or threats of violence. It is already translated into many
languages and known by people worldwide. It is ready to go as a vision for the Left. It can serve both to
organize criticism and to direct progress. We need to overcome our parochial attachment to the flawed
war-system of sovereign states and recognize the universality of our social democratic values. Unless we
have somewhere positive and inspiring to direct our gaze, we will not likely have anything to see. We
need to adopt the Earth Constitution as our global manifesto. It provides a sorely needed vision for a
truly human and liberating future. It also includes a detailed operating manual for Spaceship Earth.

[1] Empire of Chaos: The Roving Eye Collection: Vol. 1. (Ann Arbor, MI: Nimble Books, LLC, 2014), 4.
[2] Robert C. Tucker, The Marx-Engels Reader, Second Edition (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978), 469. Quotations
from the Communist Manifesto below are taken from this volume.
[3] Chris Hedges, “What it Means to Be a Socialist,” 20 September 2015:
[4] Ibid.
[5] Democracy Incorporated: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism (Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 2008), 289.
[6] John Hick, An Interpretation of Religion: Human Responses to the Transcendent. Second Edition (New Haven: Yale
University Press), Chap.18.
[7] The Meaning of Socialism (LaSalle, IL: Open Court Publisher, 1990), 15.
[8] See my account of these thinkers in Millennium Dawn: The Philosophy of Planetary Crisis and Human Liberation
(Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2005), Chap. 6.
[9] See my One World Renaissance: Holistic Global Transformation Through a Global Social Contract (Appomattox, VA:
Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2016).
[10] Critique of the Gotha Program in Tucker, The Marx-Engels Reader.
[11] The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2007).
[12] See R. Buckminster Fuller, Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (New York: Pocket Books, 1972). Fuller writes:
“Capitalism and socialism are mutually extinct. Why? Because science now finds that there can be ample for all, but only if
sovereign fences are completely removed” (p. 35).
[13] See my Historical Introduction to the Constitution for the Federation of Earth (Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic
Democracy Press, 2010).
[14] The Spiral of Capitalism and Socialism: Toward Global Democracy. (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers, 2000), 5, 6 & 9.

From State Department Madness to Empire of Chaos to Climate Collapse: The Missing Element is Human Unity

“Human Origins” In the museum of the Neolithic caves at Altamira, Spain

Without human unification humanity cannot survive. Climate collapse is devastating the planet’s ability to feed its people. Both the oceans and agricultural lands are dying. Climate collapse is transforming the oceans toward a point where they will no longer support higher forms of life. Its effects are compounded by vast worldwide production of toxic poisons in the name of satisfying ecologically destructive and insane capitalist consumerism.

As Annie Leonard points out in “The Story of Stuff” consumerism was, and remains, a fundamental (intended)
component of capitalism, without which all these hundreds of thousands of companies would go out of
business. Yet it would take five planets to satisfy this insane social-economic-political demand of capitalism.
Isn’t that simply suicidal?

What would it take for human beings to live in harmony with the life-support systems of the Earth? We would
have to begin thinking in terms of human needs rather than infinite consumption “wants.” We would have to
stop producing many things, for example, billions of tons of non-biodegradable plastics. We would have to stop pulling oil, gas, and coal out of the ground and, instead, intentionally supply the entire Earth with solar, wind, or water power. We would have to transform all of agriculture, including the use of pesticides, to organic, locally produced and ecologically farmed processes in order to conserve the loss of topsoil, stop the destruction of wetland ecosystems, restore the forests, etc.

Global economic life would have to transform to a marketsocialism carefully regulated to supply the basic needs of all (food, housing, healthcare, education, sustainable environment, peace, and justice), and no company, nation, or group could be allowed to manipulate the market for private gain. We would need a vast worldwide civilian development workforce to absorb all the jobs lost in the conversion and to restore the ecosystems of the Earth as much as possible. All this means that if we want an environment that sustains higher forms of life by the end of this century, we will have to begin now from genuine human unity. Everyone (all 7 and more billion people, 193 nations, and thousands of cultures and languages): everyone will need to be on-board. How is this even possible? I have already critiqued the new “sustainable development goals” (from 2015 to 2030) of the UN and shown the ways they are impossible to actualize under the current system, and I will not repeat this here. ( The UN can do nothing apart from the will of the nations that compose it, and the wills of some 193 sovereign entities take us about as far from human unity as one can imagine.

Robert Parry has just published an excellent article on Reader Supported News about “The State Department’s
Collective Madness.” He details the staffing of the State Department, from the time of President Reagan to the
present, with Neocon hawks, mindless ethnocentric exceptionalists, and heartless shock-doctrine economic
imperialists. No longer are there “diplomats” who live in a multi-polar world where the quality of relationships with different nations and cultures matters. Rather, State Department Neocons relate to other nations as “welldressed, well-spoken but thuggish enforcers of U.S. hegemony.” They are even willing to risk a nuclear war with Russia in their blind egoism and thoughtless aggression.

It might shed some light on these people who largely control the vast military might of the US by reflecting on the famous developmental “integral psychology” of Ken Wilber, or, for that matter, any number of other top thinkers and psychologists (such as Lawrence Kohlberg or Carol Gilligan) who have demonstrated the stages of human moral and cognitive development. All these thinkers place “egoism” at the level of gross immaturity. This is manifested in a person always thinking about themselves, about their personal benefit, their career, their wealth, their group (insofar as it benefits them), etc. Young children inevitably go through this stage, but many adults never seriously transcend this stage and continue to plague society with their selfish actions (Corporate or Wall-street CEOs? Donald Trump? Hilary Clinton? – a war-monger and Neocon if there ever was one.).

These psychologists uniformly name the next highest stage of moral development as “ethnocentric.” At some point as they mature many people submerge their selfish interests into their culture, their religion, their society, their nation, etc. The good of the group may then be placed before one’s selfish interests. But this level is still clearly immature, for emergence to human maturity begins with the “pluralist” level in which we see that there are many cultures, religions, nations, etc., and that my own background has no superiority over that of others. The process of growth then progresses to the “universal” level in which the pluralism is respected within a framework of unity, hence, a mature person respects genuine “unity in diversity.” Kohlberg calls the emergence into moral maturity the “stage of autonomy,” when one’s actions are governed by universal principles of equality and justice applied to all persons equally. Wilber and Gilligan call this stage
“worldcentric” in which the concern is for our common humanity, the common good of all persons, the good of all future generations, etc. Mature people recognize our common humanity and our common human dignity.

They act from that recognition for universal justice, for human unity, and for the good of future generations. The US State Department (and the Pentagon) are clearly staffed by moral midgets, moral midgets who have the most immense military force in the history of humankind at their disposal. No wonder it is so important at the present moment to get Bernie Sanders elected or to continue the political revolution that he has led. We need an adult in the White House! Pepe Escobar’s Empire of Chaos (a collection of his many articles over the last few years) transports one instantly into a multi-polar world of some 193 nations all competing with one another for success or at least mere survival.

His “roving eye” expresses what the Chinese are doing, or the Russians, Iranians, Saudis, Israelis, Turks, Germans, Brazilians, etc.: each with its own perspective on the world and each concerned with its own perceived national selfinterests. The US appears as what it is (a super-power intent on maintaining its declining empire through coercion, propaganda, and military force). However, not one of these nations is putting environmental action first and directing its resources to immediate conversion to an ecologically sustainable economy, industry, and culture.

Indeed, even if some nation wanted to undertake this monumental conversion, it would not be possible to do it alone. In a capitalist world order, dominated by IMF, World Bank, Wall Street and other financial and banking cartels, economic survival requires trashing the environment. Venezuela, Iran, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and others, for example, economically survive by pumping oil and gas from the Earth to be used by polluting industries, militaries, and consumers worldwide to further destroy the biosphere, just as the United States economically survives through maintaining the petrodollar as the world reserve currency and by producing and selling weapons worldwide. The global economic system and sovereign nation-state system together form a world system that is destroying the Earth.

If this picture makes the future look bleak, it is because the future is bleak. Even if the moral midgets in the State Department and Pentagon were to grow to the level of pluralism (recognizing and affirming a multi-polar world order), the world would still not have a viable future. A viable future would mean that the heads and governments of all these nations move beyond their present ethnocentrism to a “worldcentric” level of maturity in which they recognize and affirm human unity first and foremost, as a protector and prerequisite for genuine diversity. How might this even possibly happen? The answer lies in recognizing the power that the world system can have over human practices and thinking.

The present world system produces ethnocentric, egoistic, and utterly unsustainable economic, industrial, and military practices, as we have seen. As stated above, even a nation wanting to do the right thing for future generations is effectively prevented from acting by the present world system. Human unity in diversity, human moral growth, and the transformation of our world system to a worldcentric one go hand in hand. Change the system and you have gone a long way toward changing human consciousness. (Karl Marx was one of the first to understand this.) The Constitution for the Federation of Earth changes the world system to global social democracy based on the principle of unity in diversity. It unites humanity, making every human being legally a world citizen responsible to humanity, the Earth, and future generations.

Great thinkers from Albert Einstein to Carl Gustave Jung have declared that we cannot solve fundamental problems on the same level at which the problems occur. We must move to a higher level from which the problems are not so much solved as dissolved. This is our human situation on the Earth. We are trying to solve our problems from within the same world economic-political system that generates these problems in the first place. Therefore the problems only get worse and worse, portending the death of humanity and the biosphere that supports our life. We must move to a higher level of unification from which these seemingly intractable problems will simply disappear.

The Earth Constitution preserves all the nations (and cultural diversity of the world) but unites them under one World Parliament legislating enforceable world laws for everyone. It makes world peace a human right (what could be more obvious and fundamental?). It also makes an ecologically sustainable world system a human right (also obvious and fundamental). It puts everyone on the same page. It is all of us or none. Unless we unite together in a genuine worldcentric human unity, future generations will not have a chance. They will be destroyed by either climate collapse or war or both.

We must begin talking about the Earth Constitution, studying it, making it an object of debate on every talk show and public forum. It is widely available in several languages in both print and digital form. It offers humanity a way out from our current suicidal trajectory. The Constitution, discussed around the Earth, can serve as the catalyst for establishing human unity.

We can easily use the infrastructure of the current UN to begin staffing the world parliament (legislating enforceable laws), the world executive, world judiciary, world police, etc. (A plan on how to do this, called Our Common Future, has been recently published by the Provisional World Parliament.) We can easily replace the unworkable UN Charter with a real Constitution creating effective democracy, unity, and economic sanity for our planet. Without genuine human unity, we have no human future. And the fastest way to create human unity is to promote the Earth Constitution as both a blueprint and an ideal for a free, sustainable, and peaceful world system.