Human Freedom and the Common Good

Glen T. Martin

February, 2022 www.oneworldrenaissance.com

Human Dignity

The first and fundamental principle whenever one thinks about society, morality, law, or human life in general is the principle of human dignity.  This is the fundamental principle of all morality and law. It means that there is something inviolable about being human, something that sets us apart from all other things and creatures that we are aware of, something that was traditionally recognized as a spark of divinity or being “made in the image of God.”  The fact that all normal people everywhere are horrified by homicide, for example, shows that we all immediately know this fundamental principle (Martin 2018, Chap. 2).

St. Paul, in Romans 2:14, declares that the moral law is “written on every human heart” in such a way that the revealed biblical law is not necessary for people to act morally. This is because people everywhere, even those who never heard of Christianity, “do by nature what the law requires.”  The Bible declares that there is a universal moral principle known to all persons, written on their hearts by God.

Immanuel Kant in the 18th century is widely credited for putting his finger on the “fundamental principle of all morality” that he called the Categorical Imperative (1964). He states that this imperative is known immediately to all normal persons. It commands: “Always treat every person as an end in themselves, never merely as a means.”  Kant explicitly identifies this principle with our infinite dignity which is “beyond all price,” beyond all utilitarian calculations of cost versus benefit. We should not use people. If we harm them or kill them for our own advantage, we are using them as a means and violating their intrinsic human dignity. If we claim “self-defense” as an excuse for doing them violence, we must justify this claim in front of an impartial governmental forum (cf. Martin 2009, Chap. 11).

Russian philosopher Vladimir Solovyov in the 19th century agreed with Kant and St. Paul’s declaration in the Christian New Testament. He affirms that: “The moral principle, recognized in its essence by all normal people, though on different grounds and with different degrees of clearness, asserts that human dignity must be respected in every person, and that thereby no one may be made merely a means or an instrument for the advantage of others” (1950, 211).

World-renowned philosopher Jürgen Habermas in the 20th century, famous as a founder of “Discourse Ethics,” similarly links our ability to engage in “dialogue directed toward mutual understanding” with our immeasurable dignity as persons:

Human dignity,” as I would like to show, is in a strict moral and legal sense connected with this relational symmetry. It is not a property like intelligence or blue eyes, that one might “possess” by nature; it rather indicates the kind of “inviolability” which comes to have a significance only in interpersonal relations of mutual respect, in the egalitarian dealings among persons. (2003, 33)

It is the role of government, for Habermas, to promote a framework in which “dealings among persons” can and must be egalitarian. This provides the framework for “mutual respect,” in which we respect the dignity of others and do not interfere with their legitimate freedom, or their property, or their lives. Government, therefore, makes possible dealing with others through dialogue and lawful interpersonal relationships rather than through force or violence.

Human Freedom and the Common Good

All three of these philosophers recognize that our common human dignity is directly linked to the concept of freedom and that at the same time all persons are integrally linked to society and are part of some larger community. Freedom is inseparable from human dignity, and this inviolability of persons is always framed within an embracing social order. Our dignity itself is integral to our being able to obey the moral law by treating every person as an end in themselves and never using them merely as a means. The first article of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights rightly declares that “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.”

Since our fundamental quality is freedom and dignity, this means that a primary function of government is to empower and protect our personal freedom (which is also our immeasurable dignity). But government has a second primary function since it has authority over all persons: it must protect the common good of all.  Fundamental to protecting the common good of all is the difficult task of maximizing personal freedom and dignity in such ways that these are equally available to all citizens. Personal freedom must be restricted and regulated in such ways that allow equal freedom to all others within society (cf. Gewirth 1996).

For all three of these thinkers, legitimate government is that which performs this task reasonably well—maximizing personal freedom for persons within a common good framework of enforceable rules and regulations that allow this same personal freedom to all. So-called “positivists” are simply wrong. Government must be morally legitimated with respect to its ability to protect human dignity. And its functional purpose is also this moral one: to balance personal freedom with the common good. Philosopher of law Lon Fuller (1969) distinguishes the “morality of duty” from the “morality of aspiration.” He says that government must enforce a regime of duty required of all persons (the mandatory common good) in order that all persons also may freely pursue the “morality of aspiration” (their freely chosen goals).  As Solovyov expresses this:

The demand for personal freedom presupposes, for the sake of its own realization, restraint upon freedom insofar as, at the present stage of human development, it is incompatible with the existence of society or with the common good. The interests of individual freedom and general welfare, opposed to each other in abstract thought but equally binding morally, coincide in fact.  Legal justice is born of their union. (1950, 202)

The Moral Failure of All Governments Today

In his famous essay on “Perpetual Peace” (1957, orig. pub. 1795), Kant argues that the above reasons are why all human beings are morally required to live under “republican” government. You cannot have the freedom to be moral without an enforceable common good manifested in a set of rules that empower and protect this freedom by prohibiting others from interfering with it. With a prescience characteristic of genius, Kant saw that the system of militarized sovereign nation-states violated this requirement. 

Each “sovereign” government claimed autonomy over its internal affairs and recognized no enforceable laws above itself with regard to its “external” affairs.  Therefore, each sovereign government, with its vaunted military prowess, was illegitimate, in a condition of perpetual war-making that Kant called “barbarity, rudeness, and a brutish degradation of humanity” (ibid., 16).  Each government was “free” in relation to the rest of humanity irrespective of the fact that there was no government for humanity as a whole to regulate or restrict that freedom with respect to the common good of all.

Without such a global framework, human civilization remained in a condition of what Thomas Hobbes (1651) called “a war of all against all.” The first and foremost moral imperative according to Kant, was to leave this condition and establish a lawful framework for all nations. They must “enter into a constitution similar to a civil constitution” (1957., 16).

The absolute national sovereignty that has characterized nation-states for the more than three centuries claims “freedom” for each individual nation-state and ignores the common good of humanity as a whole, a common good that necessarily requires a governing authority with the enforceable capacity to end all militarism and restrict the freedom of each to conform to the equal freedom of the rest. The very existence of a military in any of these sovereign nations constitutes a denial of the notion that there is a common good of humanity, linked to human dignity, that must be protected. Any of these militarized entities is free to decide for itself (without external lawful penalty or constraint) where and when to deploy its military forces.

It is free to decide for itself whether to kill others with a drone strike or an assassination team, or through economic sanctions to starve the citizens of some other nation to death. The task of their military forces is precisely to violate the dignity of designated “enemies” by taking from them their livelihoods and lives without any lawful protection. Their job is to treat the “enemy” as a mere means and never has an inviolable end in themselves. The so-called “self-defense” argument is a complete sham. There is no such thing as “self-defense” when you are the only judge of when and where such “defense” is necessary or legitimate.

The Earth Constitution as Moral Imperative

We have seen that the fundamental moral principle requires both the moral demand to treat every person as an end in themselves (possessing immeasurable dignity) and the mandatory context for a government that provides a set of enforceable minimal requirements to protect the equal security and freedom of all.  Any military organization is necessarily directed to the arbitrary killing of some designated “enemy” in denial of their dignity.  The standing assumption behind any military is that they have the “right” to arbitrarily destroy any chosen “enemy” irrespective of that enemy’s human dignity and irrespective of the common good of the whole of humanity. As Kant expresses this: “states do not plead their cause before a tribunal; war alone is their way of bringing suit” (1957, 18).

That is why our fundamental moral imperative today is ratification of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. And that is why the Constitution is necessarily non-military.  All militarization is immoral.  The only moral form of enforcement demands a civilian police force who are required to obey the laws within a constitutional framework protecting the equal freedom and dignity of all, just the opposite of what is required of a military.

The Earth Constitution is brilliantly designed for these purposes. It respects all the nations of the world under Article 14 and empowers them to participate in governing within the House of Nations under Article 5. It respects the universal human rights and dignity of all human beings under Articles 12 and 13 and empowers all persons to participate in governing within the House of Peoples.  It wisely adds a House of Counsellors to represent the common good of the whole. It creates a world civilian police force under Article 10 whose job it is to progressively reduce any use of force in the administration of world laws and create an environment based on genuine “conflict resolution” that includes “a fair hearing under non-violent circumstances.”

Our world system as it now exists is deeply immoral and illegitimate. We are morally and rationally required to create democratic world government as rapidly as possible. The Earth Constitution is the best proposal for doing this and sets out achievable mechanisms for accomplishing this step by step. The only legitimate society is one that respects human freedom and dignity within a framework of enforceable laws premised on the common good of the whole. No sovereign nation-state within today’s world is therefore legitimate. Every nation today prefers “barbarity, rudeness, and a brutish degradation of humanity.”

The time is now, not only because we are in danger of making ourselves extinct through nuclear holocaust and/or climate collapse. The Earth Constitution is founded squarely on human dignity within the framework of an enforceable common good. It not only frees us from our present homicidal trajectory. It also embodies the most fundamental moral imperative of human existence. The time is now because we experience this moral imperative as a timeless and absolute demand governing every “now.” Let us act now to ratify the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

Works Cited

Constitution for the Federation of Earth.  Found on-line at www.earthconstitution.world and www.wcpa.global. Also published in a number of editions by the Institute for Economic Democracy Press and available from vendors like Amazon.com.

Fuller, Lon (1969). The Morality of Law: Revised Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gewirth, Alan (1996). The Community of Rights. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Habermas, Jürgen (2003). The Future of Human Nature. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hobbes, Thomas (1963, orig. pub. 1651). Leviathan. Ed. John Plamenatz. New York: Merridian Books.

Kant, Immanuel (1957, orig. pub. 1795). Perpetual Peace. Ed. Lewis White Beck. New York: Macmillian.

Kant, Immanuel (1964). Groundwork to the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. H.J. Paton. New York: Harper & Row.

Martin, Glen T. (2009). Emerging World Law: Volume One. Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press.

Martin, Glen T. (2018). Global Democracy and Human Self-Transcendence. London: Cambridge Scholars.

Solovyov Anthology, Ed. S. L. Frank, Trans. Natalie Duddington. Paris: Student Christian Movement Press, 1950, pp. 198-223.

Bookstore | The Oracle Institute

The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet: Martin, Glen T, George, Laura M, Brown, Ellen H: 9781937465285: Amazon.com: Books

Climate Disaster, Criteria for Sustainability, and the Earth Constitution

Glen T. Martin

(Speech prepared for World Intellectual Forum meetings, 21 June 2022)

Part One. Climate Disaster.  

Climate disaster is engulfing our planet. We are no longer in a period of dire projections and frightening predictions as we were in the 1960s and 70s. Today, book after book and, report after report from the worldwide Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) document our on-going planetary disaster.  Massive heat waves regularly engulf entire nations. In addition to causing immediate deaths, these heat waves induce drought and massive crop failures. And this is just the tip of the iceberg. My recent book on the environment entitled The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet (2021) reviews this literature in some depth.

At the same time agricultural lands are shrinking around the planet while the population continues to skyrocket toward 8 billion inhabitants. Agricultural land is over-cultivated due to the ever-increasing demand for food, just as grazing lands are over-grazed. Both steadily degrade in productivity. 

Devasting storms and superstorms are generated by the heat and increase annually in frequency, as are rising ocean levels and the flooding of coastlines.   The billions of tons of CO2 that human activities dump into the Earth’s atmosphere annually do not only intensify the greenhouse effect. Much of that CO2 is absorbed in the warming-acidifying oceans, contributing to the death of fisheries and vast oceanic dead-zones.  The global fish-catch has been steadily declining since its peak in 1985 (Speth 2008, 71-72).

The heating of the planet has led to unprecedented spread of insect pests and tropical diseases. The Pine Bark Beetle, for example, has destroyed millions of acres of Northern forests in the past few years alone. The only defense against these voracious insects has been the very cold winters that are now past. Every year winters get milder and the ecological balance that keeps such dangers in check is broken.

 Massive extinctions of the world’s living creatures have been going on for decades as the ecosystems that support life unravel at an ever-faster pace. The largest physical structures on our planet, its ice caps, barrier reefs, and rain forests are disappearing before our very eyes. (McKibben 70). The Greenland ice sheet, two miles thick is melting at extreme speeds and the gigantic Antarctica ice cap (also two miles thick) is becoming unstable portending ocean level rises that will flood all the world’s major coastal cities and destroy untold millions of acres of coastal croplands.

Top environmental experts no longer issue dire warnings. Today they speak in apocalyptic terms. It is happening now, all around us. Environmental scientist James Gustave Speth declares that “we are looking into an abyss.” Leading environmentalist Bill McKibben (2019) observes that “civilization is beginning to falter.” Widely known environmental writer Donald Wallace-Wells speaks of “the coming uninhabitable Earth.” Tipping point after tipping point has been passed during the last 50 years, that is, points of no return. The effect is no longer a linear one of progressive worsening but is a cascading effect of compounding disaster after ever-worse disaster (Wallace-Wells). McKibben writes “This is our reality right now. It will get worse, but it’s already very, very bad” (2019, 25-33).

Yet none of this has had a significant impact on the world’s dominant preoccupations. It has not prevented businesses from practicing business as usual, nor the peoples of Earth from burning fossil fuels.  It has not prevented nation-states from preoccupying themselves with militarism and war further destroying the environment while wasting astonishing amounts of fossil fuels. Nation-states continue to collectively spend some 1.9 trillion US dollars per year on weapons and war.    

 As Naomi Klein documents in her book This Changes Everything: Capitalism versus the Environment, the mass media (themselves businesses and owned by the rich) have largely marginalized the issue and many big oil corporations have intentionally spent millions of dollars instilling doubt in people’s minds regarding the overwhelming scientific consensus. Nor has this world’s environmental crisis prevented think-tanks around the world, such as this World Intellectual Forum, from occupying themselves with trivialities and secondary issues. On all fronts, Nero fiddles while Rome burns.

Part Two. Criteria for Sustainability.

It is not that there is significant ambiguity about what must be done. We must stop pouring CO2, methane, and other greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. Primarily, this means we must stop burning fossil fuels. We must stop the destruction of rain forests around the planet and begin protection and restoration. We must stop over-fishing the oceans and over-cultivating the farmlands.

We must reduce population growth. We must restore and regenerate soils and ecosystems as much as possible. We must free ourselves from the “dogma of growth” and develop a steady-state economics that operates in harmony with our planetary biosphere. None of this is being done on any significant scale. Every year that goes by without action on a planetary scale, compounds (multiplies) the severity of the disasters to come, possibly leading to human extinction.  Infinite growth on a finite planet is not only impossible but insane.

The specific criteria for a sustainable world system involve two interrelated dimensions: The first dimension is the one focused on most by environmental activists. It requires practical planetary programs of monitoring, continual adjustment, replanting, and regeneration, planetary conversion to clean energy sources, and the building of local communities dedicated to sustainability. The second dimension required for sustainability, often ignored by environmental activists,  involves the transformation of the three dominant global institutions that have caused the climate crisis in the first place. These three interrelated institutions are: (1) globalized neo-liberal capitalism, (2) a world fragmented among competing, militarized sovereign nation-states, and (3) a global monetary system based on debt and the institutionalized repayment of debt.

If there is to be a sustainable world-system, it must be a united world system.  The militarized competition among nation-states comprising, at the moment, a global struggle led by Russia, China, and Iran against a dollar-dominated global system led by the USA and its lackies, makes solving the environmental problem impossible. Militarism and weapons production alone are extremely destructive of the environment and, in the eyes of national security systems, militarism and war always trump environmental concerns.

Secondly, the system of corporate domination of the global economy must be transformed. The largest corporations have assets greater than many nation-states, and their charters require them to put profit first before both human welfare and environmental considerations. Under World Trade Organization (WTO) and free-trade agreement rules, they can even sue national governments that put laws in place cutting into their profit margins. Like the sovereign nation-states, global corporate power lawlessly dominates global economics. These systems coincide in that the economic interests of nations are routinely placed above undertaking the transformations necessary to create a sustainable future. Today, for example, the US is in a self-proclaimed economic war with China.

Third, again intimately linked with the first two environmentally destructive systems, is the global monetary system predicated on money as debt.  As Ellen Brown pointed out in the Web of Debt, 99% of all money in the world is currently created as debt.  Business entrepreneurs take out a development loan from a bank, and the money is simply created on a computer screen as debt to the bank, taken at a certain interest rate.  The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, both located in the global imperial center of our planet, Washington, DC, create money as debt lent to poor nations ensuring their poverty and slavery to this system.  

Richard Heinberg’s book The End of Growth (2011) describes this reality in great detail and shows how and why this debt system requires growth on the part of businesses or national economies. Without growth the principal and interest on this debt cannot be repaid.  If there is to be a sustainable world system, he shows, endless, system-wide growth must end. Money will have to be created debt-free and by and large interest-free. The global economy will have to become what economist Herman E. Daly (1996) calls a “steady-state economy.”

In a global, steady-state economy, extraction of natural resources, especially non-renewables, must be reduced to a minimum, production must be for durability and repairability rather than for endless consumption and disposal of throw-away goods. Transportation must be minimized and converted away from the fossil fuel system and globalized trade. Discharge of heat and waste into the environment by all these processes must be reduced to an absolute minimum, with the majority of what is produced recycled and repaired. In addition, the population that relies on this system must be small enough to allow for a real steady-state situation.  Leading environmentalist, Jeremy Rifkin, for example, estimates a sustainable planetary population to be about 5 billion persons (2013, 349). Today, we are approaching 8 billion persons.

The question inevitably arises at this point about the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Do these goals meet the criteria for sustainability outlined above?  Let us briefly review the UN’s history with regard to environmental protection.  The first UN conference on the environment took place in 1972 in Stockholm.  Scientists from around the world testified that humanity was in great danger and recommended immediate, drastic changes.  20 years later in 1992, people from around the world gathered once again in a world environmental conference in Rio de Janeiro.  That group recognized that little had been done to change the destructive world-system.

The “Agenda 21” program was agreed upon at Rio—requiring drastic changes before the 21st century began.  The next big UN environmental meeting took place in Johannesburg in 2002.  Again, participants recognized that little had been accomplished toward making the world-system sustainable.  So the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were formulated to be in force until the year 2015.  In 2015 another big environmental conference took place in Paris. It was widely recognized there that the MDGs had badly failed, so another, more comprehensive, plan of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 subgoals was put in place aiming for comprehensive change by the year 2030. 

From this history it should be clear that this new plan will not be successful.  It is voluntary for governments, and, worse, the plan challenges neither capitalism, militarism, uncontrolled population growth, nor global debt-based banking.  We are now 7 years into the SDG time frame of 2015 to 2030.  The demand for oil and natural gas has increased during these years, not decreased.  These SDG goals are bound to fail.  My book on climate change details why this is so.

As Chapter 6 of my book The Earth Constitution Solution shows in depth, the UN is predicated on the present world system of militarized sovereign nation-states, globalized capitalism, and planetary debt-based money creation. The text under each of the 17 SDGs makes this very clear. Militarism is never mentioned, capitalism is assumed, and debt (on “fair terms”) is offered to poor nations to help them achieve their SDGs. Neither do the SDGs consider the problem of an exploding planetary population. There is silence on all these issues. Hence, this document guarantees its own failure and sets the stage for the cascading tragedies mentioned above, including possible human extinction.

As Bill McKibben (2019) points out, the enormity of our situation is beyond the comprehension of most persons, including those in the UN and thought leaders worldwide. We simply do not want to hear it.  We cannot cope with facing up to the enormity of the truth of what must be done if we want to salvage what is left of the planetary ecosystem and prevent possible extinction. The climate is literally collapsing all around us.

Part Three: The Constitution for the Federation of Earth

My Earth Constitution Solution book shows how and why planetary sustainability (and probably human survival) is only possible under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth or some very similar system.  The Constitution converts all three macro-features of the present world system, identified above as collectively responsible for climate collapse, to sustainable forms of governance and economics.  The Constitution sets up a process of disarmament leading to a demilitarized world system. The Earth Federation government itself is non-military.

The Constitution puts the people of Earth (through their democratically elected representatives in the World Parliament and the World Financial Administration) in charge of regulating global economics to end vast wealth disparities, to create financial security for all citizens on the planet, with free health care, free education, adequate food and shelter, and secure a protected planetary climate. It affirms that a health climate is an inalienable human right. So-called “free trade” is converted in this manner into “fair trade” directed to economic flourishing for all the citizens of the Earth.

And the resources of the planet necessary for sustainability, today privately or territorially owned by corporations or nation-states, are made the collective property of the sovereign people of Earth. These include the oceans, the polar caps, the atmosphere of the Earth and its essential resources like rainforests. No longer can the resources necessary for sustainability be exploited for private or nation-state profit.

Let me give an example to illustrate this issue. The UN Sustainable Goals Document, in its introductory statement, item 18, states the following: “We affirm that every State has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent sovereignty over all its wealth, natural resources and economic activity.” Consider what this means. Under the UN system, every large state on Earth has the legal right and capacity to destroy the future of all humanity. The “lungs of the Earth” are located in Brazil.  According to the UN, Brazil has the legal right to cut down the Amazon forests and destroy the lungs of the Earth to enrich its businesses or for whatever reasons.

By the same token, the US (the world’s largest polluter) had the legal right to withdraw from the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, an act that could have brought the entire global ecosystem down with it. Similarly, China has the legal right to burn all the coal and other fossil fuels it desires, even though the atmosphere over China circulates worldwide. The Earth Constitution for the first time in history puts governing in the hands of the sovereign people of Earth, for the good of the whole and not some part, and this alone can create a decent, sustainable future for everyone.

Third, the Democratic Earth Federation establishes a debt-free, interest-free planetary currency (valued the same everywhere), under Article 8.7, providing development monies for all sustainable and regenerative projects and making possible a true steady-state economy. All the structural elements causing the climate crisis and blocking solutions are transformed under this Constitution into institutions dedicated to human well-being and planetary sustainability.

The well-known book on climate change known as Limits to Growth by Donna Meadows, et al., was first published in 1972 and republished as Limits to Growth: the 30-Year Update in 2002. The latter book details the failure of the nations of the world to heed the warnings issued in 1972.  Climate collapse is now far advanced and urgently serious (so it declared 20 years ago in 2002). The book updates and reissues its requirements for sustainability and preventing possible human extinction. There are six requirements (1) Extend the planning horizon for the world, (2) Improve signals for monitoring the real impact of human activity, (3) Speed up response times, (4) Prevent erosion of renewable resources, (5) Use all resources with maximum efficiency, and (6) Stop the exponential expansion of population and physical capital.

The actions prescribed by this book could serve as a blueprint for the features of the Earth Constitution designed to specifically address the climate crisis. The planning time is expanded to the health of the planet (as a whole) for the next century and to future generations.  Agencies are set up to monitor the health of the whole in real time, the impact of human actions, and to respond properly and effectively for the good of the planet and its future. Programs of regeneration and renewability are set up worldwide (see the amendments to Provisional World Parliament’s World Legislative Act number 6 made on 12 December 2021). Finally, the Constitution provides incentives for voluntary population control as well as providing legislative restraints on the expansion of physical capital. 

On both a practical level and a system transformation level the Earth Constitution provides the system imperatives and infrastructure for a sustainable world.  The UN, under its current Charter, cannot possibly achieve this, as we have seen.  The best ecological action any person, group, or nation can take is to work for ratification of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

There will be no sustainability without real transformation of both our spiritual condition of national and personal egoism and our world-system structures that cater to this egoistic domination and exploitation of nature and people by the few.  Palliatives put forth by the timid and cowardly in the name of “being practical” are leading us into total disaster.  Nothing short of ratification of a genuine Earth Constitution can salvage the ecology of our planet and help ensure the survival of humanity, in spite of an already severely damaged global ecosystem.

Works Cited

Brown, Ellen (2007). Web of Debt

Daly, Herman E. (1996). Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press.

Constitution for the Federation of Earth. Online at www.earthconstitution.world.  In print with the Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Appomattox, VA, USA, 2010 and 2014. Legislative Acts of the Provisional World Parliament can be found on www.oneworldrenaissance.com.

Heinberg, Richard (2011). The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

Klein, Naomi (2014). This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Martin, Glen T. (2021). The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet. Independence, VA: Peace Pentagon Press.

McKibben, Bill (2019). Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? New York: Henry Holt Publisher.

Meadows, Donna et al. (2002). Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update.

Rifkin, Jeremy (2013). The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Speth, James Gustav (2008). The Bridge at the Edge of the World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Wallace-Wells, Donald (2019). The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming. New York: Penguin/Random House.

Brief History and Rise of the Earth Constitution

A brief history of the world federation movement

The movement for world federation began as a social movement among world citizens during and after the First World War.  Some leaders in the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom realized that WW I was not about so-called good guys verses bad guys.  It was the result of a world-system built upon the idea of the world as a collection of militarized sovereign territories recognizing no effective laws over themselves.

The movement grew between the World Wars with the publication of a number of well-read books and articles concerned to unite the nations into a world federation.  After the Second World War, the movement perhaps reached its zenith about 1947 to 1950. Hundreds of world federalists met in Montreux, Switzerland in 1947 and proclaimed the famous “Montreux Declaration” that began:

“We world federalists are convinced that the establishment of a world federal government is the crucial problem of our time.” The document states that “We world federalists meeting in Montreux [Switzerland] at the first international congress of the ‘World Movement for World Federal Government,’ call upon the peoples of the world to join us in our work.”

Widely read books, such as The Anatomy of Peace (1945) by Emory Reves were translated into many languages.  Reves correctly states that “War takes place whenever and wherever non-integrated social units of equal sovereignty come into contact” (p. 121).  This means that all so-called sovereign nation-states are “non-integrated social units of equal sovereignty.” They recognize no enforceable laws above themselves. Each must militarize itself in case of threats to its security. Each nation must be ready for war at any time. World federalists from the time of the First World War to the present, understand that the world-system of sovereign nation-states is inherently a war-system, whether there is fighting going on at any one time or not.

In his famous essay, “Neither Victims nor Executioners” (1946), French writer Albert Camus declared that this horrific Second World War meant that people had to move to an entirely new way of thinking. They had to repudiate partisan loyalty to militarized nation-states and commit their loyalty to humanity and the human project. They could do this only thorough establishing a world parliament. He wrote:

“We know, then, without shadow of a doubt, that the new order we seek cannot be merely national…. It must be universal…. The only way of extricating ourselves is to create a world parliament through elections in which all peoples will participate, which will enact legislation which will exercise authority over national governments” (pp. 47-49)

As World War II was about to end, nations were in ruins, representatives of 50 countries gathered at the United Nations Conference on International Organization in San Francisco, California, from 25 April to 26 June 1945. For the next two months, they proceeded to draft and then sign the UN Charter, which created a new international organization, the United Nations, which, it was hoped, would prevent another world war like the one they had just lived through.

The UN Charter was signed by all the victor nations in WW II, including the big five of China, Russia, Britain, France, and the USA.  These five installed themselves as permanent members of the Security Council, the body that had final say over all UN resolutions passed by the General Assembly. Each of the five had a veto power over all proposals. The agreement in San Francisco (placed in Article 109 of the Charter) was that a review conference would be held after 10 years to possibly alter and improve the UN Charter (today, this is known as “the San Francisco Promise). To date, no such review conference has been held. The San Francisco promise has not been kept.

The UN Charter creates the UN as a forum of discussion (only) in its General Assembly and commits the organization to protect “the sovereign integrity” of its member nations. All resolutions of the Assembly can be vetoed by any of the permanent members of the Security Council.  The UN is therefore a merely treaty of sovereign nations, not a government and without any law-making authority. Under the UN Charter the Security Council alone has the authority to authorize war or sanctions against any nation it deems threatening to the global peace.  Needless to say, the five permanent members of the Security Council have themselves been free to invade, manipulate, blockade, or undermine other nations as they see fit, since they possess the power to veto any attempt by the UN to stop these practices.

Meanwhile, the United States and the Soviet Union were busy producing ever more nuclear weapons and delivery systems, that, if ever used in a major war, could destroy the entire ecosystem of the planet and lead to human extinction. For this reason, world famous scientist Albert Einstein declared, “There is no salvation for civilization, or even the human race, other than the creation of world government.” This was true in 1950 and it is even more true today when nuclear weapons are now possessed by many nations and are many more times as deadly and destructive then they were at that time.

The high point of the early world federalist movement may have been the large “World Peoples’ Convention that took place in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1950. These meetings did not produce any significant document although there was much talk about needing a Constitution for the Earth. After this convention the movement went in various directions and atomized into several smaller groups.

The world federalist movement splintered after 1950 into various groups and factions some of which are described above. Today, there are a number of organizations and movements for world governance of some sort, from Citizens for Global Solutions (CGS) to the World Service Authority (WSA) to various national segments of the World Federalist Movement (WFM). However, none of them have managed to create a Constitution for the Federation of Earth. The only organization successful in doing this was the World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA).

Development of the Earth Constitution

WCPA was founded in 1958 by Phillip Isely and his wife Margaret.  Philip had been in federal prison in the US during World War Two because he thought that wars were a product of the world system and not a matter of “good guys” fighting with the “bad guys.” In other words, he had a world federalist understanding of the world’s war-system.  After the war, Philip and Margaret joined the Campaign for World Government at its Chicago offices, and they soon formed a “World Committee for a World Constitutional Convention” which then changed its name to the World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA). Today, both WCPA and the Earth Constitution Institute (ECI) promote the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

Philip and Margaret Isely used the money from their successful business in Denver, Colorado, to work with like-minded world federalists from many countries on the project of writing a constitution for the Earth. By 1968, they organized the first large international meeting dedicated to this purpose that took place in Interlaken, Switzerland, and nearby Wolfach, Germany.  At this meeting (today called the First Constituent Assembly), they elected a drafting committee of 25 persons chaired by Dr. Reinhart Ruge from Mexico.

The core of this team met in Denver, Colorado for several months during 1972 to work on a draft for the Constitution. There were five main drafters: Philip Isely, who largely financed the project; Dr. Terence Amerasinghe, an international lawyer from Colombo, Sri Lanka; S. M. Hussain from Dhaka, Bangladesh, who later became a justice on the Supreme Court of Bangladesh; D. M Spenser, a professor of law from Mumbai, India, and Dr. Max Habicht, an international lawyer and leader of world federalism from Switzerland.

Their drafted constitution was circulated worldwide among world federalists from WCPA headquarters in Denver, Colorado, with feedback and responses from participants around the world.  In 1977, the second “World Constituent Assembly” was held in Innsbruck, Austria.  People from many countries came together to examine and discuss the draft paragraph by paragraph.  The draft was approved by the assembly, and the document was then sent out to the nations of the world and all ambassadors to the United Nations. There was no response, only a few polite acknowledgements, but no nations embraced the Constitution and took up the cause of world federation.

A third Constituent Assembly was therefore scheduled for 1979 at the Hotel Ranmuthu in Columbo, Sri Lanka at which people from many countries who were dedicated to this project assembled to discuss the situation. The result was not modifications of the Constitution but a statement to the world that the people of Earth must take the lead in creating a decent world system on behalf of all people and future generations. Nations were locked into their militarized situation of inaction and mutual suspicion. The Assembly issued a declaration affirming that the people of Earth have the right and the duty to ratify a Constitution for the well-being of themselves and future generations.

Under the newly drafted Constitution, WCPA, with Philip Isely as Secretary General, with Dr. Reinhart Ruge and Dr. Terence Amerasinghe as Co-Presidents, began to hold sessions of the Provisional World Parliament as mandated under Article 19 of the Earth Constitution. The first session of the Parliament was held at the famous Royal Pavilion in Brighton, England in 1982. The Parliament was inaugurated by Sir Chaudry Mohammed Zafrullah Khan of Pakistan, who was former President of the UN General Assembly and former Foreign Minister for his country. Officers at the Parliament included Lucile Green (later President of the World Citizens Assembly), Max Habicht, leading international lawyer, and A.B. Patel, then General Secretary of the Sri Aurobindo Movement and World Union, headquartered in Pondicherry, India.

The Second Session of the Parliament was inaugurated before a packed house in the famous Constitution Club of New Delhi, India (where the Constitution of India had been signed). It was opened by the then President of India, Zail Singh, and chaired by the then Speaker of the Lock Sabha (the lower house in India’s Parliament), the Hon Bal Ram Jakhar.  The Third Session met at the huge Fontainebleau Hilton Hotel in Miami Beach, Florida, for eleven days of intense work during June 1987.

Philip Isely in 1996

From the many discussions of the Earth Constitution taking place during the 1980s, it appeared that the Constitution could be further improved through changes in wording. A fourth Constituent Assembly has called for Troia, Portugal, in 1991, during which a number of wording changes were made to the document. At the conclusion of this Assembly, the group voted that the Constitution was finished and ready for ratification by the people and nations of Earth.  From that point forward WCPA has promoted the Constitution as a finished document.

WCPA continued to hold sessions of the Provisional World Parliament with the Fourth Session in Barcelona, Spain, in September 1996.  Since then, there have been 10 more sessions, the last of which took place in New Delhi, India, in December 1996. The 16th session is now being planned for Pondicherry, India during 2023.  Legislative acts of the Provisional World Parliament to date can be found on the www.oneworldrenaissance.com website.

The 10th session of the Provisional World Parliament meeting in Kara, Togo in West Africa

The Earth Constitution compared with the UN System

Passed on December 10,1948, the “UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights” begins with the ringing words: “recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.” Human rights and human dignity are universal, it declares, yet the UN is a treaty of sovereign nations.  This means that the enforcement (or not) for human rights is up to each nation. The Declaration of Human Rights is “merely symbolic” within the UN system and human rights cannot be enforced by the UN but only by nation-states, many of which are not democracies and do not respect human rights.

Similarly, though war except in self-defense or as sanctioned by the Security Council is prohibited under the UN System, there are no barriers to nations arming themselves to the teeth with defensive and offensive weapons, missiles, warships, and the rest.  The result is a war-system, always on the verge of breaking into lethal conflicts. Under the UN system of sovereign nation-states, the only way for the Security Council to maintain peace is by punishing an entire country and its people through hurting them economically or, if this does not work, by going to war. This is described in Articles 41 and 42 of the Charter:

Article 41 (UN Charter)

The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

Article 42 (UN Charter)

Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.

In other words: How does the UN keep the peace? By going to war. Repeat this fact until it sinks in: How does the UN keep the peace? By going to war. In fact this is the only way that order can be maintained in a world of militarized sovereign nation-states where there is no world law enforceable over individual persons. International law is nearly always about relations between nations. It does not hold persons responsible.

And the International Criminal Court (ICC) that opened its doors in 2002 to hold individuals responsible is hopelessly hamstrung both by the nation-states that support the court and by the nations (like the USA) that oppose the court. In a world seething with violators of human rights everywhere, it has only managed to prosecute a few individuals. The world clearly needs democratically legislated world laws over all individual persons and enforceable for everyone. Every human being has the right to have their human rights and dignity protected by law. This is precisely what is impossible to do under the UN system. Here is what the Earth Constitution declares:

Article 10 (Earth Constitution)

10.1.1 The enforcement of world law and world legislation shall apply directly to individuals, and individuals shall be held responsible for compliance with world law and world legislation regardless of whether the individuals are acting in their own capacity or as agents or officials of governments at any level or of the institutions of governments, or as agents or officials of corporations, organizations, associations or groups of any kind.

Third, under the UN system there is no way to protect the global environment except though attempting to convince each nation to tighten its belt and sacrifice for the good of all. However, each nation sees that other nations are not so sacrificing.  The result is that the voluntary pursuit of environmental protections never happens and cannot happen. The Earth Constitution places the essential resources and ecological features of the planetary ecosystem under the protection of the Earth Federation government led by the democratic World Parliament. Hence, the oceans, the atmosphere of Earth, the polar caps, and the rain forests are now under the protection of the Earth Federation government and no longer free to be exploited by corporations or national governments.

That is because the Earth Constitution recognizes the people of Earth as sovereign. It limits the sovereignty of nation governments to control over their internal affairs insofar as their actions conform to the human rights protections afforded by the Earth Constitution to everyone. To main absolute sovereignty for nations is to enforce a war-system for the Earth. To recognize the sovereignty of the people of Earth is to create a peace-system for the Earth, as well as a justice-system, a sustainability-system, and a freedom-system.

The UN is a paper tiger unable to end war, protect human rights, diminish social differences or protect the environment. This is because the UN Charter is merely a treaty of militarized sovereign nation-states recognizing no effective laws about themselves. It does not represent the peoples of Earth but only the sovereign nation-states of the Earth. It is not a democracy and does not run on democratic principles.

In the UN General assembly, for example, a tiny island nation has one vote and the huge country India with a billion people has only one vote. Nations like Saudi Arabia are free to violate the rights of all its women citizens and there is nothing the UN can do. Nations like Myanmar are free to persecute and murder the population of Rohingya peoples living there and there is nothing the UN can do. The USA is free to blockade Cuba and Venezuela (in violation of international law) and there is nothing the UN can do.

On the other hand, the Earth Constitution is designed to accomplish each of these goals precisely because it unites humanity to work through institutionalized measures for the common good of the whole world, not just individual nations, corporations, or rich persons.  Dr. Glen T. Martin’s books show how and why this is so. The Earth Constitution makes all individual persons responsible to obey world law and human rights subject to arrest and prosecution by the World Police and Attorney Generals. The Agency of the World Ombudsmus serves as a watchdog on government, corporations, and any other organizations that might violate human rights. Weapons of war are not necessary if individuals are subject to law enforced by civilian World Police.

It is the same for human rights and ending war.  The laws made by the World Parliament are enforceable over all individual persons anywhere on Earth. The manufacture of all weapons of war has been made illegal by the Provisional World Parliament and can also easily be made illegal by the World Parliament once the Constitution is ratified. It is enforceable world law that make possible the survival and flourishing of humankind.  This cannot be done through voluntary cooperation of sovereign-nation-states nor by profit-directed multinational corporations.

The Earth Constitution calls for incorporating all viable agencies of the UN into the Earth Federation government.  Democratically legislated world laws will be enforced over everyone by civilian World Police and Attorneys General. War is outlawed and individuals worldwide held accountable for obeying the laws. World legislation outlaws weapons of war as well as incitement to war.  Human rights, including diminishing social differences, become a priority of the World Ombudsmus. Protecting the environment will be spearheaded by agencies within the Integrative Complex.  All in all, the Constitution is designed to accomplish these goals. The UN Charter is not a constitution, nor is it democratic, nor can it keep the peace.

If the world is one family, as the Upanishads of India declare, then we need to govern ourselves as one family, not as some 200 separate militarized competing entities. This is the key to world peace with justice, sustainability, and freedom and what the Constitution for the Federation of Earth offers to the world.

Earth Federation Manifesto:

Century Twenty-One:

Humanity at the Crossroads

The Manifesto of the

Earth Federation

Glen T. Martin

Unanimously ratified as an official statement

of the Provisional World Parliament at its Seventh Session,

Chennai, India, December 2003

 (First Published in World Revolution through World Law, Ed. Glen T. Martin,

Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2005)

Foreword

 This manifesto summarizes, as briefly as possible, the multiple crises our world is facing and the kind of response necessary if we are to survive the twenty-first century.  It demonstrates on every page why federal world government under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth is necessary in the very near future.  In 1995, the report of the blue ribbon “Commission on Global Governance” outlined many of the global crises we confront today and stated that “the present generation knows how close it stands to cataclysms.”  This manifesto shows this claim to be false.  

The present generation insists on remaining in denial and willful ignorance.  Yet the arguments for federal world government are compelling and decisive.  They are presented on nearly every page of this manifesto. Those who have ears to hear and eyes to see, need to listen and look.  This manifesto is intentionally as short as possible so that it may be easily read and understood. It deals with the issues of terrorism, war, the environment, social movements, the U.N., the system of nations, and global economics. It may well be one of the most significant documents you will ever read. 

The Prologue below describes the final crossroads that human beings face today.  We can reap the insights of twentieth-century science showing the holism and interdependency of every aspect of our universe.  Or we can continue in fragmentation, division, and mutual destruction.  Our world of war, terror, massive poverty and misery, and environmental destruction cannot endure much longer. Human beings must become politically and economically whole or we will perish. The choice is clear and simple, and the momentous consequences at stake are not difficult to discern. 

Part Two, what the Earth Federation has accomplished to date, reviews the momentous legacy that we inherit from the generations who created the Constitution and the Provisional World Parliaments. A tremendous movement has emerged around the Constitution for the Federation of Earth. It has been translated into many languages and people in nearly every country are beginning to rally around the banner of the Earth Federation. Much excellent work is already accomplished.  We do not have to invent the wheel.  We are in a position today to set the wheel in motion. 

Part Three, humanity poised at the crossroads between destruction and liberation, expresses the reasons we are at a crossroads for human existence on this planet.  It considers global economics, the nation-state system, the United Nations, and global social movements.  It shows the interdependence of all these movements in the nexus of crises that we face on Earth.  It shows the role of our major world institutions in creating and deepening these crises.  We must choose for a civilized world order today, with a clear choice and decisive action, or we will surely destroy the Earth for ourselves and for all future generations.

Part Four, failure of the United Nations, considers the United Nations, its history, its structure, and its failure to transform our world into a world of peace with justice.  It lays out the facts for all who are willing to see and hear, and shows clearly why the U.N. has failed.  It details how the many worthwhile agencies of the U.N. could really do their job if they were incorporated into the Earth Federation and, for the first time, had adequate funding and authority.

Part Five, the dead end environmental hopes of Rio and Johannesburg, looks at the Environmental Summits at Rio de Janeiro in 1992, at Johannesburg in 2002, and other treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol.  It documents the failure of the nations to live up to their environmental agreements (leading to ever greater planetary catastrophe) and why they do not and cannot act to save the global environment.  It shows that the very structure of our world system, which is historically outdated and manifestly unjust, is preventing humanity from saving the planetary environment. 

Part Six, the condition of our world at the dawn of the twenty-first century, considers the nexus of global crises that we confront at the outset of our new century.  It provides the latest scientific facts documenting all these crises: the crisis of fresh water, the crisis of poverty, the crisis of arable land and viable fisheries to feed the people of Earth, the environmental crisis, the population crisis, the crisis of sickness and disease, the crisis of education, the crisis of global economics, and the crisis of global militarism.

It demonstrates in what ways these crises are all interdependent and interrelated and underlines how they all stem from the fragmented world system of so-called sovereign nation-states and global monopoly capitalism. It makes clear for each crisis why federal world government is the only viable solution. It specifies exactly how these problems are addressed by the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, including how the Constitution specifically addresses the problems of militarism, terrorism, and war.

Part Seven, common sense economics under democratic world government, outlines the intelligent and fair economics that are being developed by the Earth Federation to create a world of prosperity and equity rather than one of scarcity and misery.  The seven economic innovations outlined in Part Seven are readily understood and easily implemented. It makes clear that a world of plenty and justice is not merely a utopian dream but a very real possibility under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.  All reasonable people can understand the rationality and simplicity of these options. Another world is truly possible.

Finally, Part Eight, where do we go from here? addresses the actions we must take at this historical crossroads to create a sustainable, just, and prosperous world order.  These actions are common sense and based on clear, compelling arguments, and extensive factual evidence. Part Eight appeals to the poor majority of people on Earth to act on their own behalf and on behalf of a future for their children.

But it points out that we are all made poor by the present world order of injustice, misery, and war.  We are all citizens of the Earth under the Constitution, and today we are all made poor by the wretched conditions that the old rotten system perpetuates into the future.  It calls for all citizens of the world to unite under the Earth Federation.  If many citizens of the Earth were to stand up on behalf of a decent world order at this crossroads of history, a world of sanity, peace, and prosperity would be just around the corner.

1.    Prologue

1.1.  Human history on planet Earth has reached its final crossroads.   Human beings can continue on the road to imminent perdition, or we can rise to a new level of civilization for the Earth.  This manifesto clearly describes that crossroads for all who care to see and hear.  Our message is not a confused and sentimental longing for a better world as is so often heard today from groups seeking to protect human rights, or advance democracy, promote peace, or address poverty and disease.  Our message is clear, precise, and specific.  The reasons we are on the road to imminent perdition can be easily understood.  And the reasons for the Earth Federation are clear, compelling, and decisive.  This manifesto is about that choice.  Time is running out when this choice will be available to us.  The time for firm decision is now.  There is no other time.

1.2.  This choice is not an arbitrary or irrational one.  For the concept of holism (unity) emerges as the fundamental insight of every twentieth-century revolution in science.   The Einstein revolution showed that nature and the cosmos must now be understood holistically.  And Quantum physics has shown this to be true on the sub-atomic level.  On both the macro and micro levels, our universe exhibits unity as a seamless, interdependent field of space/time/energy/matter.  Ecology and the biological sciences have also demonstrated holism at every level of living nature, including the encompassing ecosystem of the Earth. 

1.3.  The major sphere where fragmentation, division, and reductionism remain is the sphere of human social life in the system of territorial nation-states and the global economic system of violence, greed, and noncooperation. It is no accident that Einstein was an outspoken advocate of planetary federal government. He understood the inescapable holism of the world we live in.  The choice before us is to convert our thinking to holism (the unity and interrelatedness of all persons on the Earth) or to continue into destruction with our fragmentation and violence.  This holism is embodied in the Constitution for the Federation of Earth through a dynamic and comprehensive relationship of unity-in-diversity.  We must immediately choose the holism of federal world government or we may soon perish from the Earth.

1.4.  Today, a creative groundswell in the movement for a sane federal world order is making the current lords of the Earth tremble in their corruption and fragmentation.  The people of the world are awakening to the lies and distortions of the media, their subservience to power, and the corrupt interests defending the old rotten order while destroying the Earth for future generations.  We citizens of the Earth Federation are spokespersons of this new world order predicated on wholeness, democratic values, and the common good of all persons on Earth.  They may imprison or kill us as individuals, but the groundswell of awakening among the people of the Earth is unstoppable.  We are poised at a crossroads for humanity.  We must choose wisely – for humanity – or we may perish from the Earth.

2. What the Earth Federation has accomplished to date

2.1.  We citizens of the Earth Federation, gathered at this historic Seventh Session of  the Provisional World Parliament, recognize that we are building on the collective efforts of thousands of world citizens who worked tirelessly since 1958 (and throughout the twentieth century) to bring us the great legacy that we inherit today.  They are to be honored and revered as prophets and designers of the Earth Federation that is destined to create truly civilized life on planet Earth for the first time in human history.

2.2.  Our predecessors, some of whom are among our leaders yet today, gave humanity, first and foremost, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.  This document, one of the great milestone documents of human history, was forged to the finest quality by the effort of hundreds of world citizens in four Constituent Assemblies from Wolfach, Germany, in 1968 to Troia, Portugal, in 1991.  Today, it has been distributed worldwide and translated into twenty-two languages. 

2.3.  The Constitution is recognized by many people around the world as the supreme law for Planet Earth, superseding all laws passed by the approximately 190 territorial entities that today call themselves “nation-states” and claim the false right to pass laws for their territories not accountable to the rest of humankind.  We understand today that no merely territorial entity has the right to claim absolute sovereignty for its laws unaccountable to the universal principles of equity, justice, freedom, and peace embodied in the Earth Constitution and widely endorsed universal declarations of rights and responsibilities, including the Earth Charter. True sovereignty resides with all the citizens who live on Earth, not within limited territorial entities.

2.4.  The Constitution creates a parliamentary system that will not be subject to subversion and corruption as has turned the so-called liberal democracies into “national security states” dominated by executive branch secrecy and arbitrary power.  There will be no need for executive secrecy and arbitrary power when all nations are demilitarized under the rule of democratically legislated laws.  The world parliament has three houses (a House of Counselors representing all humanity, a House of Nations representing every nation on Earth, and a House of Peoples with proportional representation from 1000 electoral districts worldwide).  The main branches of government under this Parliament (the World Judiciary, the World Executive, the World Police and Attorneys General, and the World Ombudsmus) are all directly accountable to the Parliament and have no power to suspend the Constitution, withhold spending of the budget, violate human rights, create a military apparatus, or otherwise subvert the universal guarantees given to all nations and peoples by the Constitution.

2.5.  By recognizing the sovereignty of the people of Earth and universal economic and political rights for all citizens, the Constitution ends once and for all the power-politics of nation-states that struggle for economic advantage, control of resources, military hegemony, and spheres of influence.  This struggle continues to destroy the rights and the lives of millions around the globe, as it has for centuries.  It mandates equitable use of the Earth’s essential resources for all people, making possible a truly civilized world order under the rule of democratically legislated law for the first time in history.

2.6.  Will there be “opposition parties” within the Earth Federation?  Of course.  Unlike the pseudo-diversity of today’s two party systems, a genuine diversity of voices is the heart and soul of democracy. Under today’s common one or two party systems, the group in power attempts to suppress, silence, co-opt, or eliminate its opposition. There is a lack of that mutual respect and unity necessary to legitimate the diversity of genders, cultures, religions, ethnicities, or political viewpoints.

2.7.  Sheer diversity without authentic unity results in conflict, violence, and the rule of the most powerful.  The Earth Federation is predicated on “unity in diversity.”  Diversity is protected and encouraged precisely because it is encompassed by the unity of the universal rule of law and universal citizenship.  Everybody has a voice and a stake in the welfare of the whole and of everyone else.  A genuine plurality of voices listening to one another (rather than trying to suppress and drown one another out) is here made possible for the entire Earth.

2.8.  The second great accomplishment of our predecessors was to take many active steps to actually  initiate democratic world government under the Constitution.  They have given us a body of provisional world law that has been carefully developed since the first Provisional World Parliament met in 1982, and they have begun elaborating the ministries necessary for the functioning of world government.  Since 1982, the Provisional World Parliament has met in six different locations around the world, the Sixth in Bangkok, Thailand in March 2003, the Seventh in Chennai, India in December 2003, and the Eighth in Lucknow, India in August 2004.

2.9.  Today, the world inherits from our predecessors a body of quality planetary law that  serves as a model and a beacon for all humanity lighting the path by which we can move from a world of chaos, war, and imminent disaster to a world of peace, freedom, equity, and justice.  The Sixth Provisional World Parliament established a Commission for Legislative Review to codify and professionalize this body of world law.  When the first operative stage of World Government has begun, and the official World Parliament has been constituted, this body of law will serve as a tremendous gift to humankind, and available to the Parliament for review, modification, or immediate ratification.

2.10.  Those of us worldwide who have personally ratified the Earth Constitution are now ambassadors and spokespersons for the Earth Federation, voices crying in the wilderness of global chaos, violence, and fragmentation, but also prophets speaking for the future of civilization and the greatest hope for humanity.  The Earth Federation lives at the moment through us until the day when it will become recognized and embraced by all of humanity.  On that day we will be honored and revered as courageous pioneers who selflessly struggled against tremendous odds on behalf of our precious planet Earth, universal justice, and a decent life for future generations.

3. Humanity poised at the crossroads between destruction and liberation

3.1.  Recognition of our great movement is happening everywhere among the poor and dispossessed majority of the world.  Recognition that all the tired options of the past have long been exhausted and that the present world order is kept in place not by hope and vision for a better future but by institutionalized force and violence.  This poor and dispossessed majority are the great hope for humanity and the Earth Federation.

3.2.  Monopoly conditions dominated by global corporations and imperial governments enforce upon the world’s poor majority a global system of economic exploitation and domination.  The World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, imperial governments, and the heads of multinational corporations work in secret forums to effectively eliminate all opposition to their criminal pillage of the planet and its resources. This system is one of planetary institutionalized violence, forcing unnecessary death and disease on untold millions who are victims of the rape of the planet by the rich and powerful.  This system is enforced by the overt violence of strategically placed global weapons sales, counterinsurgency military training provided to dominant elites in poor countries, political manipulation, threats of economic sanctions or punishment, and outright invasions or bombings of countries that attempt to take an independent course.

3.3.  Yet with the failure of the United Nations to prevent genocide against the Iraqi people culminating in the 2003 invasion of their country, and the total failure of the U.N. to prevent the complete devastation of Afghanistan over the past twenty years, it has become clear to the poor nations and peoples of the world that the U.N. is a false prophet and an ideological cover for the preservation of the system of global exploitation and domination. The recently created “International Coalition Against Terror,” illustrates the impotence and irrelevancy of the U.N.  This coalition creates a permanent, global war system largely comprised of the wealthiest nations, most of whom have a history of colonial domination of other countries, who today produce most of the world’s weapons, including weapons of mass destruction. 

3.4.  Independent people’s movements, like the World Social Forum, have sprung up globally, determined to create a more just and equitable world order.  There are also many non-governmental organizations working to protect human rights, relieve poverty, preserve the environment, or promote health-care throughout the world.  They speak of “resistance” to the dominant order, of restoring “living democracy” to the planet, empowering the poor, canceling international debt, or “food first” for the world.  Yet they offer no clear means for achieving these goals within a world system predicated on war, national imperialism, and power politics, only vague ideas about making economics and politics more democratic, more just, or more responsive to the needs of the poor.

3.5.  The Earth Federation does not want to be “more responsive to the needs of the poor.”  The Federation provides the means for eradicating poverty from the Earth.  We do not work to make the existing institutions of power, domination, and exploitation (the “sovereign” nation-state and global capitalism) “more democratic.”  There is no way to make the flawed and fragmented power-based institutions of today’s world “more democratic.”  They are inherently totalitarian and undemocratic, whatever their ideologies may claim, and have produced a living hell for those unfortunate enough to be their victims.

3.6.  The metaphor of hell is apt, for the institutions of the “sovereign” nation-state and their global economic system have created a living hell on Earth for the past five centuries through their policies of merciless conquest, genocides of indigenous peoples, brutal systems of slavery, vicious colonialism, endless colonial wars, world wars, and militarized neocolonial domination of today.  Presently, for at least 1.5 billion citizens on this planet, and for the poor majority of the world, they truly represent the rule of hell on Earth. We understand that these institutions must be replaced by genuine federal world government and by an economic system premised on rapid sustainable development and the welfare of all the Earth’s citizens. 

3.7.  The key to solving the terrible global crises confronting humanity is the creation of global institutions capable of planetary action and premised on creating a world of equity, freedom, justice, and peace.  There are no such institutions in the world today.  Only democratic world government is capable of dealing with global crises on a planetary level.  Gradual modification of the present flawed institutions of the world is a prescription for planetary suicide.

3.8.  Approximately 150 years ago, another manifesto announced that a “specter was haunting Europe,” the specter of violent revolution and expropriation of the stolen wealth of the rich. We announce that a peaceful revolution is at hand, more far reaching than that earlier manifesto could have imagined.  We announce that there is no need to expropriate the wealth of the rich to create global equity, freedom, justice, peace, and prosperity. 

3.9.  Our revolution is more far reaching because it is planetary in scope and because humanity is at the final crossroads.  The earlier revolution was premature, for humanity had not yet reached its final crossroads.  Our revolution for the first time in history creates planetary institutions that represent all the world’s people based on the principle of unity-in-diversity.  No one is excluded.  For the first time in history, the needs, rights, and interests of the whole of humanity are taken into account by democratic, truly planetary institutions.

3.10.  The choice today is between certain chaos, barbarism, and destruction or democratic world government under the Earth Constitution.  Our revolution abolishes not only the worst features of capitalism and monopoly corporate pillage as did that earlier manifesto. It also abolishes that other demon from hell that has wreaked havoc on the Earth for the past five centuries: the absolute “sovereignty” of nation-states.  The so-called “sovereign” nation-state is a fragmented, irrational, and dangerous institution that has divided the Earth into approximately 200 competing territorial entities.  Its very existence denies the sovereignty of the people of Earth.  We must not only eliminate the worst features of capitalism.  We must also eliminate the warring, imperialistic, and greedy institution of the absolute sovereignty of nation-states.

3.11.  Since nation-states call themselves “sovereign,” and recognize no authority of law above themselves, they are always in a relation of chaos, struggle, and defacto war with one another.  This fact was pointed out by Thomas Hobbes, Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, and many other political thinkers.  In this situation, action for the common good of humanity and the Earth is in principle impossible.  The only authentic and legitimate sovereignty is that of all the people who reside on Earth.  And the Earth Constitution embodies that sovereignty in effective world government in which all people and nations live under the rule of democratically legislated law for the first time in history.  The holism of nature and the ecosystem of Earth is for the first time realized also in human affairs.  The common good of the Earth and future generations can for the first time be effectively addressed.

3.12.  The old order is dead and dying.  The world is at its final crossroad.  We can sink further toward imminent destruction of the Earth and its inhabitants led by the rich and powerful corporations, governments, and financial institutions concerned only to preserve their system of exploitation and domination as long as possible into the ever-darkening future.  Or we can move to a higher level of human dignity and civilization on planet Earth by uniting in one world under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

4.  Failure of the United Nations

4.1.  Many nations and many well-meaning people in the world, however, have not embraced a truly new world order under the Earth Constitution but have followed the U.N. system based on the failed institutions of the past five centuries of the modern era. The United Nations was created by the victors of the Second World War in order to ensure their continued dominance in the affairs of the world.  This has been illustrated in its sad history of veto upon veto, preventing the majority of nations in the world, representing the majority of the people of the world, from altering the world order in the direction of equity, freedom, justice, or peace.

4.2.  The ideals embodied within the U.N. Charter, such as preventing “the scourge of war” are belied by its undemocratic organizational structure and its underlying assumptions.  According to the U.N. Charter, the “scourge of war” is to be prevented in the last resort by the Security Council going to war.  Such absurdities of our present world order permeate the document. The U.N. Charter is based on “the sovereign independence” of its member states, reaffirming the flawed and false principle of territorial sovereignty.  For this reason as well imperial nations can ignore the U.N. when they choose, and go to war at will entirely outside of the U.N. system.

4.3.  In practice, for the past five centuries, this doctrine of “sovereign independence” has meant that the powerful nations dominate and exploit the weaker nations.  It has meant that the global north has become rich through exploiting the global south.  Today, this system continues through the GATT system of the U.N., the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization.  The global south (Africa, Latin America, South Asia) is poorer, more exploited, and more miserable today than ever before in history.  The wealthy elite in the global north is richer today than ever before in history.

4.4.  The United Nations has failed to prevent war.  There have been some 130 wars since the advent of the U.N. resulting in some 25 million war related deaths, most of them civilians.  The U.N. has failed to create security for the people of the world.  It has allowed rampant world militarism with ever faster and more destructive weapons created and deployed at the staggering figure of approximately 850 billion U.S. dollars per year.  Not only has military insecurity increased worldwide, the people of the world are today faced with an every growing number of insecurities connected directly with the failure of the United Nations. 

4.5.  Food insecurity has increased worldwide, as has water insecurity, insecurity with respect to health care, and insecurity of educational opportunities.  Under the U.N., millions have been displaced from their rural lands and been forced into horrible slums in gigantic third world cities to be faced with community chaos and insecurity in the form of drugs, prostitution, violence, and crime.

4.6.  The U.N. has failed to eradicate poverty.  Global poverty is significantly greater today than when the U.N. was created. Today, largely under domination by the United States with its shameless promotion of multinational corporations dedicated to pillaging the planet of its resources and cheap labor in the service of private profit, the U.N. is turning more and more to “private solutions,” making deals with private, profit-making corporations to supply education, water, electricity, health care, vital drugs, farming, or transportation to so-called developing countries. 

4.7.  Dozens of countries around the world have seen their essential infrastructures and services that served the people privatized and destroyed by employee cutbacks, profit gouging, and holding poor populations hostage to their monopoly control of essential services. The bottom line is that the concept of “developing countries” is a misnomer, for most of the world remains merely a colonial service area to supply cheap resources, labor, and quick profits for the wealthy corporations and their sponsor governments. Under the present system, there is no hope and no real intention of these countries ever “developing.”

4.8.  In addition, the U.N. has failed to limit the exploding global population that today is in excess of six billion persons and growing by eighty million new persons each year, numbers of people that the finite resources of the Earth cannot possibly support.  Finally, it failed to protect the disintegrating environmental integrity of our planet despite holding huge conferences on the environmental crisis in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Johannesburg in 2002.

5.  The dead-end environmental hopes of Rio and Johannesburg

5.1.  The June 1992 Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro was a milestone in a clear understanding of our human condition on planet Earth.  The documents produced at Rio show the understanding that the global crises are all interconnected and interrelated.  We cannot protect the environment without simultaneously eliminating poverty, eradicating war and militarism, controlling population growth, and restricting the drive for economic gain through acting on universal principles of what sustains and protects the common good of the planet and its future.

5.2.  By the time the 35,000 delegates met at the Earth Summit in Rio, it was clear that all development on the Earth must be “sustainable,” for the planet could not much longer survive a model of development treating the finite resources of the Earth as an unlimited cornucopia for exploitation. Nor could the limited ability of the planet to absorb waste materials and pollution be treated any longer as an infinite cesspool, where industrial development indiscriminately externalized its costs and its wastes into the water, air, and soil.  The people at the Rio Summit understood that sustainable development means meeting the needs and improving the quality of life in the present without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their own needs while living lives of quality and dignity.

5.3.  The delegates at Rio created one of the great documents of the twentieth century: “Agenda 21.”  This document understood that workers and farmers in developing countries had to be empowered and protected, that protections and opportunities for women and children worldwide had to be strengthened, that education had to be disseminated to all peoples of the developing world.  In short, sustainable development must necessarily mean reducing population growth, eliminating poverty, providing the education necessary for development.  Agenda 21 also made it clear that definite, rigorous goals had to be set for the reduction of greenhouse gasses and ozone depleting gasses by nations and their industries, and that global fisheries, farmlands, grazing lands, and forests had to be preserved and restored.  Many nations signed Agenda 21 and promised to achieve the goals set for them by the document.

5.4. The subsequent Earth Summit at Johannesburg, South Africa in August-September 2002 represented a widespread recognition of the failure of Agenda 21 and the hopes of Rio for bringing the world back from the brink of disaster.  There was nothing wrong with the Agenda 21 plan itself.  The nations of the world simply did not honor the commitment and demand to reduce greenhouse and ozone depleting emissions, to empower the developing world in ways that provided education, eliminated poverty, and reduced population growth, and to create a sustainable and integrated world economy and more equitable world order.

5.5.  Why should any one of the 190 competing territorial units, each with its own internal problems and self-interest in mind, act for the common good of the Earth and future generations?  The very assumption that they might do this was hopelessly naive.  Why should any of the multi-billion-dollar corporations now pillaging the Earth act for the common good of humanity and future generations?  Familiarity with their actions around the world demonstrates that these organizations are often criminal in nature and run by criminals.  Several of the books in the bibliography to this manifesto document in detail the worldwide criminal interrelationships between multinational corporations, banking institutions, governments, and even global terrorism.  How naive for the people at Rio to believe that any hope for the environment was possible under the current world system!

5.6.  Many at Johannesburg recognized that governments alone (of which the U.N. is officially comprised) cannot save the world from disaster. Many governments are not representative of their own people: many are dominated by big business interests, some are dominated by religious extremists or criminal thugs (dictators), many are under the thumb of the big imperial powers or the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank.  For this reason, many world citizens struggled at the Johannesburg conference to get a voice for the non-governmental organizations at the decision-making tables. 

5.7.  They argued that governments (and their corporate partners) alone are not capable of representing the interests of the future, the people of the world, or the planet itself.  Some progress was made in getting NGOs recognized as a voice in the dialogue about the future of the world, and some people, sadly, believe this represents a success of Johannesburg.  But in reality it only illustrates the complete failure and hopelessness of the U.N. process.

5.8.  Agenda 21 failed not because its goals were incorrect or unrealistic, but because it was a product of a United Nations Conference recognizing the “sovereign independence” of each of the 190 territorial entities on the planet and affirming a global economic system of crass greed and pillage. Agenda 21 was merely a treaty, like the subsequent Kyoto Protocol on the environment, like the United Nations Millennium Declaration of the year 2000, and like whatever agreements emerged from Johannesburg.  Subsequently, corporations and imperial nations acted to destroy the Kyoto Protocol from within by creating a system for “pollution credits” or, as they call it, or “global emissions trading.” This system has allowed them to continue trashing the environment while claiming that they are conforming to “free market” environmentalism. 

5.9.  The structure of the world system is deeply flawed and absolutely inadequate to the vital needs of the world to end poverty, war, population growth, environmental degradation, and social chaos.  A system of 190 territorial entities all claiming sovereignty over some piece of land cannot possibly produce universal equity, freedom, justice, or peace in the world. A world economic system based upon the unbridled greed and self-interest of nations and corporations cannot possibility create sustainable development and save the planet from impending disaster.

5.10.  ‘To bring new voices of NGOs to the discussion table may push governments and public opinion towards recognizing existing injustices. International groups of doctors and others have prompted resolutions about land mines, an international criminal court, and the environment. However, naively assuming that this produces adequate and responsible remedies is a recipe for total disaster.  NGOs, like world citizens, have a healthy democratic function but not a right to speak for all humanity apart from world government.  The nations of the U.N. do not speak for all humanity but only for themselves and their sovereign interests.  Neither are such NGOs elected by the people of the Earth to represent their interests. 

5.11.  The U.N. system is as undemocratic and unjust as any set of institutions could possibly be.  The U.N. failure to protect the global environment and create sustainable development is not the result of a lack of understanding of the problems we face.  It is a result of an organization premised on the particularized and inadequate institutions nearly five centuries old (the nation-state and global capitalism) and entirely inadequate to address universal needs and interests.

5.12.  To add a powerless “peoples’ assembly” to the already powerless General Assembly of the U.N., or to add the voices of a few NGOs to the dialogue about the world’s future, may seem to some a giant step, but it is a feeble gesture towards a democratic rule of law among nations.  It is to ignore the living hell that is the world we live in for a good portion of humanity.  It is to ignore the impending cataclysms nearly upon us of global population increase, global epidemics, global water shortage, global starvation, global collapse of fisheries and farmlands, global warming, global flooding of coastal lands, global ozone depletion, global war, and global social chaos.

5.13.  Democratic world government is the only rational option, the only possible vehicle that can represent universal and global needs and interests.  The Constitution for the Federation of Earth is directed explicitly to the global crises faced by our planet: population, poverty, militarism, health care, education, and environment.  It gives the elected representatives of the sovereign people of Earth the legal authority and the mandate to create sustainable development for the entire Earth and to transform the world to one of equity, freedom, justice, and peace.  No other force on Earth can accomplish this task within the limited time available to us.

5.14.  Replacing the U.N. Charter with the Earth Constitution does not mean dismantling many excellent U.N. organizations and their worthwhile infrastructure that can be used as a basis for the agencies of world government concerned with health care, the welfare of children, the rights of women, sustainable development, education and cultural exchange, labor standards, international shipping, postal regulations, meteorology, environmental standards, and other important fields. Many U.N. agencies do excellent work in all these areas despite the impediments placed in their way by sovereign nations and global economics.  The Earth Federation will immediately increase the funding and global scope of all worthwhile U.N. agencies, converting them to ministries of the Federation.  Many agencies of the U.N. are valuable and should be preserved.  It is the U.N. Charter with its flawed assumptions that must be replaced.

5.15.  The failed United Nations system is bringing the world ever nearer to complete disaster, as was recognized by many at Johannesburg.  To invest more time and energy into that system is mad and even suicidal. We are one world, one humanity, one global ecosystem, one system of information and communication.  We are deeply interdependent and interrelated with every other person on the planet.  Yet we have failed to create any global institutions based on this truth.  The Constitution for the Federation of Earth is the only viable document based on this understanding. Its Preamble states that “Humanity is One,” and that the principle of “unity in diversity is the basis for a new age when war shall be outlawed and peace prevail,” and “when the Earth’s total resources shall be equitably used for human welfare.”

5.16.  The Earth Constitution represents, for the first time in human history, planetary institutions, planetary vision, planetary responsibility, and democratically guided planetary planning for sustainable development and the welfare of future generations.  This is the only truly viable, widely publicized option presently available as we face the crossroads of the early twenty-first century.  Shall we continue on our disastrous course of attempting to deal with planetary crises through fragmented and divisive institutions nearly five centuries old? 

5.17.  Or shall we move to a new level of existence on this planet, perhaps fulfilling the very meaning of our historical pilgrimage on Earth?  Shall we at last create planetary institutions representing all the people of Earth, all the living creatures of Earth, and the welfare of future generations?  The Seventh Provisional World Parliament (who ratified this Manifesto), along with the many thousands of planetary citizens who have ratified the Earth Constitution worldwide, recognize that we are the prophets and harbingers of a truly new world order premised on the universal principles of equity, freedom, justice, and peace.  Our responsibility is correspondingly great. We must continue activating a global movement among the peoples and nations of Earth to ratify the Constitution and initiate truly democratic, federal world government before it is too late.

6.  Condition of our world of at the dawn of the twenty-first century

6.1.  The crisis of fresh water.  There is a growing shortage of fresh water worldwide.  Every person living needs approximately thirty gallons of clean water daily.  Yet hundreds of millions of people live on less than ten gallons daily.  As the population of the planet continues to increase by eighty million persons per year, so does the need for water.  Yet underground aquifers from which most water comes are receding at an alarming rate.  Four decades ago groundwater levels could be found a few meters below ground.  Today in many places special wells and pumping systems are required to access water 180 meters or more beneath the Earth. 

6.1.1.  The size of the giant underground aquifers on which people depend for irrigation and to supply cities with water are steadily shrinking.  The aquifer under the Midwest of the United States is half the size it was less than one hundred years ago.  In addition, unsustainable industrial development has poisoned water systems around the world so that many groundwater systems are polluted with heavy metals and other toxins from mining, oil drilling, or manufacturing. 

6.1.2.  Governments of the world have also not acted to preserve the water that falls in the form of rain.  They have not acted to preserve the forests that retain fresh water over the land and serve as a conduit to move the water inland from the sea.  Irrigation systems, accounting for seventy percent of the world’s freshwater use, irresponsibly waste immense amounts of water, often because of the drive to maximize profit rather than preserve the Earth for future generations.  Meanwhile, drip irrigation systems are available that could conserve a tremendous volume of fresh water.

6.1.3.  How is the global water crisis to be handled if not by democratic world government?  Nation-states alone have no ability to deal with this global phenomena.  Water patterns are global.  Global warming is changing these patterns worldwide, creating droughts in some places and floods and hurricanes in others.  Sources of water cross borders, as for example the sources of water in Bangladesh, with its immense problems of flooding, lie largely in India.  Currently, water systems in many nations have been privatized, placed in the hands of global corporate criminals.  Water prices have skyrocketed, while purity and protection of clean water supplies have evaporated.  Only the World Parliament operating under the Earth Constitution can create a workable water policy for the entire planet.

6.2.  The crisis of poverty.  Poverty is greater and far more extensive today that ever before on Earth.  1.5 billion people, or close to twenty percent of the Earth’s population, live on less than one U.S. dollar per day.  This means a large portion of the Earth’s population go to bed hungry each night.  It means millions of malnourished children and immense human potential for creativity and development lost because malnourishment often leads to retardation or diminished intellectual capacity. 

6.2.1.  It is often truly said that there is enough food grown globally to feed all people currently on the Earth.  But the global economic system distributes that food to those who can pay, to the wealthy first world nations, leaving hundreds of millions of people in the developing world hungry. Poverty cannot be eliminated through giving resources directly to hungry people. Charity is not development. 

6.2.2.  Poverty can only be eliminated through extensive programs of education, health care to eliminate the many diseases and diminished potential that go with poverty, non-exploitative finance capital to activate local and regional economies, and infrastructure development to enhance the economic multiplier effect that can come from widespread circulation of money between producers and consumers throughout the developing world.

6.2.3.  There are no Earthly institutions that can accomplish all these goals in an effective and timely manner.  To accomplish these tasks would take immense resources, planning, coordination, and oversight to provide education, health care, nonexploitative finance capital, and a high-quality infrastructure throughout the developing world.  Only world government representing the Earth Federation could do this.  Without  effective world government, there is no hope of eliminating poverty and misery from the Earth.

6.3.  The crisis of resources for feeding the people of Earth.  There are at least four features of the Earth that humans and animals depend on for food and survival: farmlands, grazing lands, ocean fisheries, and forests.  All of these resources are being degraded and destroyed at alarming rates. 

6.3.1.  Farmlands lose many billions of tons of topsoil every year to wind and water erosion because of unsustainable farming methods.  Farmlands worldwide are also being over-planted, leading to soil exhaustion and deterioration.  Every year millions of acres of agricultural land are become unusable and are lost to human food production. 

6.3.2.  Grazing lands, where herds of goats, cows, sheep or other animals are pastured, are becoming degraded and diminished through overgrazing. Overgrazing eventually destroys the land itself, leading to growing desertification worldwide.  Deserts, increasing in size worldwide, are largely waste that cannot support human or animal life.  By some estimates, fifty percent of the land in Asia and Africa is now useless for supporting life. 

6.3.3.  Third, ocean fisheries are dying due to over-fishing and perhaps to the rise of ocean temperatures from global warming.  The tonnage in fish harvests is diminishing each year.  In some cases, such as the once rich North Atlantic fishery, the entire fishery has collapsed, costing the world millions of tons of protein once supplied by those fish each year. 

6.3.4.  Finally, we are losing the forests of the world.  Forests hold the soil from eroding, store fresh water and move it inland, moderate the climate, provide a habitat for the Earth’s wild creatures, and provide a wealth of biological materials for medicine and human well-being.  They are also “the lungs of the Earth,” since they bind the carbon dioxide given off by most human industrial processes and give off oxygen to replenish the atmosphere. As with agricultural lands, grazing lands, and fisheries, forests are disappearing from our planet at an alarming rate.  The world loses approximately thirty million acres of rain forest per year.

6.3.5.  As with the other crises listed here, the causes of this are well-known and understood.  And as with the other crises, the factors are intertwined with the factors causing all these crises.  Global militarism at 850 billion U.S. dollars per year obviously wastes immense resources that should be used for education and development.  Global militarism produces immense amounts of toxic wastes, and war itself creates environmental havoc.  Global poverty contributes to the destruction of forests since most people in the developing world use wood for cooking. 

6.3.6.  In addition, the global economic system of unregulated greed and self-interest unsustainably logs these forests for private profit.  Global population pressures lead to over-farming, over-grazing, and overfishing, and hence destruction of the very basis for feeding future generations on this planet.  Industrial pollution and the continued production of greenhouse and ozone depleting gases daily diminish the planet’s ability to support life in the future.

6.3.7.  What institutions in our world possess the ability to mount a coordinated, carefully thought-out, well-financed, and strategically designed plan for dealing simultaneously with all these interdependent and interrelated crises?  There are none, least of all the United Nations which we have seen is predicated on the fragmented institutions of the past and committed to the barbaric and outmoded systems of “sovereign nation-states” and corporate pillage. 

6.3.8.  What is needed is not merely a coordinated policy of conservation, what is needed is a dynamic policy directed toward reversing the tremendous damage already done and restoring the Earth to ecological health. Only a World Parliament, representing all the people of Earth as well as future generations, with the authority and resources to carry humanity over the crossroad from possible extinction to a new world order of equity, freedom, justice, and peace, can provide the solution to these otherwise insurmountable problems.

6.4.  The environmental crisis.  The crisis of resources for feeding the people of Earth, like the water crisis, are part of a multi-dimensional breakdown of the planetary ecological systems.  Depletion of the ozone layer that protects living things from the deadly ultraviolet radiation of the sun, destruction of the forests and phytoplankton in the oceans, exhaustion of fresh water supplies, and dumping of millions of tons annually of toxic wastes into the air, water, and soil, all constitute substantial disruptions of the health of the planetary ecosystem and portend eventual environmental collapse. 

6.4.1.  Global warming is a widely recognized scientific fact that has already resulted in massive weather pattern changes, increased melting of the polar caps, and unprecedented “superstorms.”  And it is widely recognized that global warming will inevitably bring rising oceans and flooding of the coastal lands of Earth, displacing more than a billion people and submerging a good portion of the Earth’s remaining farmland.  Yet little is being done to change this nightmare scenario.  We are told that the demand for oil (a chief cause of global warming) will increase by thirty percent in the next ten years.  And today the nations and multinational corporations of the world are fighting (economically, politically, and militarily) to ensure the “stability” of countries housing old oil reserves and to control vast regions of Asia in the light of the new reserves soon to be available from the Caspian Sea basin. 

6.4.2.  Under the current world system such madness (with the power and profit that the control of oil brings) is inevitable.  Only a federation representing the entire Earth could have the political will and authority to convert the world to solar, wind, water, and hydrogen power, find ways of recycling and minimizing toxic waste, really protect the ozone layer, and restore the other essential features of Earth necessary for a quality human life for all persons.

6.5.  The population crisis.  The teeming slums and social chaos of Mumbai, Dhaka, Mexico City, or Rio de Janeiro spread diseases like Malaria, Cholera, Tuberculosis, and AIDS.  They create pollution from cooking on innumerable charcoal fires, and they crowd more people into tiny areas than can possibly live on the resources available there.  Such teeming slums in hundreds of cities around the world, create immense sanitation and water problems.  They create social chaos, crime, drug and alcohol addiction, and they damage the environment simply because there are too many human beings in too small a space. 

6.5.1.  All over the world, overpopulation is causing havoc. It is crowding more and more people onto agricultural lands and villages that cannot support them.  Desperate for income and work, millions are being driven into the vast slums of monstrous cities where a nightmarish life of suffering and deprivation await. 

6.5.2.  Eighty million persons per year are added to the population of the Earth. Many scientists estimate eight or nine billion persons on our planet by the year 2025.  Yet even the current population cannot be sustained by the finite and diminishing resources of Earth.  Ninety percent of the eighty million children born into the world each year are born into extreme poverty.  Every new person requires another thirty gallons per day of potable water.  Every person requires food, educational, health care, and infrastructural resources.  Every person produces waste and pollution that must be absorbed by the environment.

6.5.3.  While some governments have had limited success in reducing population, the problem is global, not territorial.  Reducing population growth in Kenya will little affect the world’s bleak future if the planet continues to add eighty million new persons each year to its limited carrying capacity.  Only democratic world government has the authority and resources to promote the health of the whole planet. 

6.5.4.  The remedies are as simple as they are impossible under the system of territorial nation-states.  Elimination of poverty, education, support for family planning programs, if done on a global scale with adequate resources and organization, can quickly reduce the birth rate on the planet.  Some estimate that the Earth can only sustain reasonably well about 2.5 billion persons.  Under the present world system, the goal of reducing the Earth’s population to this level is a mere chimera.  Under the Earth Federation, a significant reduction in the planetary birth rate is a sensible and rational possibility and can be achieved within fifteen to twenty years of the inception of world government.

6.5.5.  The net result will not be costly for the people of Earth.  Population reduction through education, family planning programs, and the elimination of poverty will add to the world’s human resource potential, eliminate the cost of rampant diseases and the spread of AIDS, eliminate the costly effects of pollution generated by an unsustainable population, and free up the resources of the Earth for the prosperity of future generations.

6.6.  The crisis of sickness and disease.  Overcrowding, lack of basic sanitation, poor water quality, shortage of fertile land, inadequate nutritious food, environmental pollution all are causes of disease and crippling health limitations among the poor of the world.  Fifty percent of the population of the world lack adequate sewage and sanitation systems.  The sewage runs into local streams and rivers, and into the puddles in the dirt roads where children play and adults walk.  Poor sewage systems threaten sources of clean water, compounding the risks and sources of possible disease. 

6.6.1.  Waterborne diseases like cholera and typhoid are common.  These diseases have been eliminated in developed countries because we understand their causes and how to eliminate them through sanitation and clean water systems.  The problem is not lack of knowledge and understanding. The problem is today’s world system that makes providing clean water and sanitation to the poor countries of the world a virtual impossibility.

6.6.2.  Anyone traveling in South Asia, South America or Africa is struck by the number of crippled and maimed people living in every city, town, and village.  Polio and other preventable crippling diseases are common. People unnecessarily crippled by these diseases often become less productive and less useful to the economic potential of their societies.  Early death and a drain on the health care systems of poor countries also comes from such common diseases as tuberculosis, malaria, or AIDS.  Tuberculosis is on the increase worldwide as is AIDS.  Yet dealing with these diseases requires dealing with all the other global crises outlined in this manifesto. It requires effective sanitation systems for all, clean and adequate supplies of water for all, education and adequate health care systems for all, and nutritious, adequate food supplies for all.

6.6.3.  The transformation to a decent world order required is not a luxury or a utopian dream.  It is an absolute necessity if the world is to have a future at all.  More than a century after microbiology discovered the causes of most disease, many decades after the development of the technologies of water purification and sanitation, many decades after the development of antibiotics and drugs adequate to control most diseases, unnecessary sickness and disease are still increasing worldwide. 

6.6.4.  This epidemic of preventable sickness and disease among the world’s poor is a shame upon the humanity of us all.  It cannot be dealt with apart from democratic world government under the Earth Federation. The Earth Constitution mandates health care for everyone, education for everyone, clean and sanitary environment for everyone, not just for those who can pay, not just for those who now dominate and exploit the rest for their own benefit.

6.6.5.  The AIDS epidemic alone requires vast resources and coordinated efforts across the world.  Yet these are not forthcoming under the present world system.  The entire continent of Africa is being ravaged by AIDS, with an estimated 28 million cases in this year, 2003, as well as the other diseases mentioned here.  Only the Earth Federation with the resources, authority, and coordinated planning to deal with simultaneously with global sanitation, poverty, disease, pollution, militarism, land degradation, global warming, human rights protections, and universal education can adequately address the AIDS epidemic or the problems of preventable sickness and disease.

6.7.  The crisis of education.  Universal quality education is absolutely fundamental to sustainable development, just as it is to the elimination of poverty, the prevention of disease, and the control of population growth. In the developing world, some 120 million children do not even go to elementary school.  Even where schooling is available, many millions of poor children throughout the world must go to work at an early age to help themselves and their families survive. 

6.7.1.  Eight and nine-year old children in bare feet, with no parents anywhere to be seen, beg pennies from automobiles at stoplights in Managua and Mumbai.  The AIDS epidemic in Africa alone may leave twenty million children orphans within the next few years.  These children, and others in similar desperate poverty throughout the developing world, have little chance of becoming literate, let alone gaining enough education to become effective agents in the transformation of global society towards equity, freedom, justice, and peace.

6.7.2.  Poor nations, strangled by international debt to the World Bank and wealthy First World financial institutions, are being forced through structural adjustment programs to sell off public educational systems, transportation systems, water systems, health care, and other systems to private, profit-making enterprises.  As a result education is becoming ever more elitist in the developing world as those who can afford to pay for private schooling get the tools necessary for success or escape from their native country to the first world, while the vast majority who are extremely poor are deprived of any opportunity for a decent education.  Those who can afford an education often immigrate and this “brain drain” diminishes the number of skilled and educated people necessary for sustainable development.

6.7.3.  Education, while absolutely essential to development, is not a priority for those remaining who struggle simply to survive from day to day. As with the other features of our planetary crises, education is not possible without eliminating poverty, without developing sanitation and clean water systems, without developed infrastructure from roads to computer terminals and telephone lines.  Education is not possible while poor countries waste their resources on purchasing ever more sophisticated weapons from the first world arms merchants.  Education is not possible when the Earth is adding eighty million new persons to its population each year. Education is not possible in the face of ever-increasing food shortages and water shortages.

6.7.4.  To create an educated population capable of energetic and creative solutions for sustainable development requires the complete transformation of our present institutions and an integrated solution to the interrelated nexus of global crises.  Only federal world government under the Earth Constitution would have the resources, universal vision, and integrated, global approach necessary to solve the world’s problems through putting education at the center of a global policy of sustainable development.  Educated and energetic people can solve their own local sanitation and water problems, address the waste of their own governmental bureaucracies, initiate development projects, and control population growth.

6.7.5.  The airwave communications spectrum supporting radio, television, telephone, and internet must be used by the people of developing nations for free education of their populations concerning sanitation, family planning, agricultural methods, control of disease, and development projects. There is tremendous potential for real institutional transformation through education that is next to impossible under present global institutions.

6.7.6.  Corporations are interested in private profit, not education for fundamental change.  Governments are often interested in militarism and staying in power rather than in fundamental change.  Only world government under the Earth Constitution can solve the crisis of education and make possible a quality education for every citizen of Earth.  Only world government under the Constitution is unafraid of fundamental social change, since its mandate is precisely fundamental change to a world of equity, freedom, justice, and peace.

6.8.  The crisis of global economics.  The vocal protests at World Bank meetings and meetings of the World Trade Organization (WTO) around the world emphasize the elitist nature of the global economic system, controlled by multinational corporations, First World financial institutions, and powerful First World governments.  This economic system, despite the rhetoric of “free trade” or “development” is designed, as were its colonial predecessors, to benefit the powerful financial players of the world and to ignore the consequences for the rest of humanity and future generations.

6.8.1.  Corporations have gained extraordinary power in the last few decades.  Even to the limited extent that territorial governments can deal with multinational corporations with more assets than many governments themselves, the corporations have taken steps to ever more exempt themselves from the environmental or social consequences of their practices. Corporations can now sue governments before secret WTO tribunals if, for example, environmental laws interfere with the profit margin of corporations doing business in those countries.  Global economic regulations are formulated in secret by the powerful and imposed upon the weaker majority of the nations of the world.  They are not formulated with the common good of human beings or the planet in mind, but for the prosperity and profit of private financial institutions.

6.8.2. Who is to regulate corporations and the powerful governments that support them?  Who is to speak for a rational, democratically planned, and equitably designed economic system directed toward universal sustainable development?  Clearly the U.N. has been colonized by these very multinational corporations as well as dominated by the powerful governments that represent these corporations, primarily the United States.  Clearly the World Bank and the IMF serve these same interests.

6.8.3. The present global economic system has destroyed jobs in mass on the local level worldwide.  It has created a race to the bottom where many poor countries compete to sell off their precious natural resources or other export products to the lowest bidder.  It has destroyed effective environmental regulations everywhere.  It has led the economies of entire nations to crash and burn in a chaos of poverty, social disintegration, and unemployment.  Some examples of this (out of many) are the destruction of the economies of Somalia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Indonesia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Argentina, with the ensuing horrific violence and social disintegration in each case.

6.8.4.  A decent economic system for the world promoting universal prosperity and ending exploitation and domination in the service of private interests is impossible without federal world government under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.  Only enforceable world laws, applicable to all individuals (whether heads of corporations or heads of governments), can give us sufficient democratically guided economic regulation and activation to eliminate poverty and create genuine sustainable development worldwide. 

6.8.5.  The principles of a decent global economic system are rational, common sense, and easily attainable.  Some of these will be described below.  At this point we wish to make clear that there can be no dealing with the numerous global crises outlined here without an equitable and thriving planetary economic system.  Only democratically legislated and enforceable world law can create such a system.

6.9.  The crisis of global militarism.  Global militarism has not decreased with the end of the Cold War.  Weapons sales worldwide have only increased, as has the amount most nations of the world spend upon their military establishments. Neither has the world been able to create effective treaty bans on land minds, antipersonnel weapons, depleted uranium weapons, nuclear weapons, intercontinental missiles, or space-based weapons. Chemical and biological weapons are still being researched and developed by many nations.

6.9.1.  Powerful forces have tremendous economic and imperial interests in preventing any progress towards arms control or demilitarization. We have seen that the world currently spends approximately 850 billion U.S. dollars per year on militarism and war.  It is sometimes said that only half this amount spent annually for the next two decades could transform the world into one of equity, prosperity, and environmental integrity.

6.9.2. Yet to make this claim is to say little or nothing in the face of the immense forces of the world arrayed against arms limitations or demilitarization.  To make this claim without challenging the global institutions promoting war – the system of so-called sovereign nations and the global economic system that makes war and militarism extremely profitable for a few powerful corporations – is to state a merely utopian dream.

6.9.3.  Nothing can control the militarism of the world under the present world system, not NGOs, not the U.N., not individual nation-states.  Under the present system of militarized “sovereign” nation-states, there is a nearly inevitable temptation, within both large and small nations, to try to impose military solutions on what are essentially economic, social, and political problems.  The result is inevitably disaster, spawning immense human rights abuses, devastation of civilian infrastructures, environmental destruction, rebellion and social unrest, radical terrorist groups, religious fundamentalism, and a host of other problems. The result of thinking in terms of violence and coercion (which is what all military thinking does) is that nations are involved in a complex and corrupt global power game that even leads them to arm and support some terrorist groups while trying to suppress others.

6.9.4. Extremist terrorist movements flourish under the conditions of a militarized, violent, warring world order.  Such terrorist movements are an inevitable response to state terrorism.  And nearly every military action by nations amounts to exactly this: state terrorism.  The standard definition of terrorism (the illegal use of violence and coercion to achieve social or political goals) fits the military actions of nations as well as those of extremist groups. The solution to both extremist group terrorism and state terrorism is to legally abolish all terrorist and military activities worldwide. They are two sides of the same coin. 

6.9.5.  World government under the Earth Constitution abolishes all military and concentrates on the economic, social, and political problems that breed extremism and social unrest.  It encourages political, religious, and cultural pluralism so that all groups feel their voices are heard rather than suppressed.  It addresses the roots of terrorism which involve the suppression of political participation, poverty, exploitation, and domination of the many by the few.  By doing so it will break the cycle of violence forever.

6.9.6. Without effective world government under the Earth Constitution, there is no possibility of reaping the almost unimaginable benefits of converting the nearly one trillion dollars per year now wasted on world militarism to sustainable development and human welfare.  The Constitution prohibits the world government from having a military of its own in any form.  Therefore, no resources of the Federation will be wasted on militarism.  Under the Earth Constitution, nations joining the Federation (and they will join in droves once they see the incredible benefits of uniting) are required by law to demilitarize under the careful supervision of the World Disarmament Agency.

6.9.7.  Each nation joining the Federation is required to give half its last year’s military budget to the Federal Government and may keep the other half of this amount for its own purposes.  Nations joining the Federation would immediately have not only innumerable benefits from a federal world government now very well funded with former wasted military money, but would reap the benefits of retaining for useful purposes half their own funds formerly wasted on militarism.

6.9.8. Here is the key to creating a decent and civilized world order and addressing all the crises outlined in this manifesto.  The money for transforming the world order to one of equity, freedom, justice, and peace is readily available.  This one source alone can provide 850 billion dollars per year.  But there is no way to tap this cornucopia of now wasted wealth without the authority and legitimacy of democratic world government. The U.N. has failed miserably in this regard, for one cannot defend the integrity of the nation-state system, base global economics on the Western model of greed, financial exploitation, and corporate self-interest, claim that peace can be preserved by going to war, create U.N. armies called “peacekeeping” forces, and expect at the same time to diminish the insane militarism of the world.

6.9.9.  Under the Earth Constitution all nations are disarmed and the world federal government itself is nonmilitary.  All weapons of war and of mass destruction are carefully and systematically destroyed.  Disarmed governments without armies and weapons do not invade one another or attack one another. Extremist groups do not emerge as “blowback” against military suppression. Disputes are handled by the World Court system designed to create a just and equitable world order and through political participation of everyone in the World Parliament. An independent branch of government is created (the World Ombudsmus) to represent those who believe their rights under the Constitution have been violated.  The world police possess only weapons necessary to apprehend individuals, for only individuals (and not entire nations) commit crimes.

6.9.10.  Crimes (whether in the form of manufacturing weapons, human rights violations by heads of state, or environmentally destructive policies by corporations) are committed by individuals, and a global society under the rule of law has the authority and means to arrest and prosecute individuals.  The madness of attacking the people of an entire nation for the supposed crimes of a few is ended forever under the Earth Constitution.  There will be no more bombings of the good people of Yugoslavia because their President is suspected of crimes, no more bombings of the good people of Afghanistan because it is suspected there are terrorists in their midst, no more invasions of the innocent people of Iraq because their leader is suspected of crimes.

6.9.11.  The madness of the current world system of sovereign nation-states where an entire nation must be militarily attacked or economically punished because of the suspected crimes of a few must be abolished forever.  The only way to abolish this mad system is to create a demilitarized Earth Federation where all individuals on the planet are equally subject to the rule of democratically legislated law.  The powerful heads of corporations or imperial nations will no longer be exempt from arrest and prosecution as they currently are.  Terrorists and violators of human rights will no longer be able to hide behind the borders of so-called sovereign nations as they often do today.  For the first time in human history, universal justice and equity will be possible on our planet.

7.  Common sense economics under democratic world government

The economics of a decent world order under the Earth Federation can be summarized in seven simple, yet fundamental principles.  Once the official World Parliament is elected, it will have the authority to implement a global economic policy based on these principles.

7.1. First, extensive lines of credit in Earth Currency and nonexploitative loans will be made immediately available to individuals, businesses, and governments for purposes of sustainable development.  The great lie of the present world order is that only those who possess wealth can loan money or create lines of credit.  But real wealth is a product of natural resources, capital, and human labor.  The world government can create immense lines of credit in Earth Currency to be used for rapid, sustainable economic development wherever this is needed within the Federation. 

7.1.1.  With the creation of real wealth from development, these lines of credit can be repaid for only an additional small accounting fee. There will be no exploitative interest rates.  And the value of Earth Currency will not be predicated on the global financial institutions that now devalue currencies of poor countries and manipulate the “convertible currencies” to continue to enrich themselves. 

7.1.2.  The first twenty-five nations to ratify the Constitution (comprising a large portion of the Earth’s population, resources, and collective technological know-how) will form a substantially autonomous economic unit. The Federal government will immediately begin extending lines of credit for development, not merely to the already wealthy elites within these countries but to the poor or whoever has a sustainable, nonmilitary project in mind that would create wealth as well as benefit society.  Individuals, businesses, and governments will have ample lines of credit available to them for only the cost of an accounting fee.  Governments could reasonably focus on rapid development of infrastructure (roads, schools, hospitals, sanitation, communications), while businesses focused on goods and services.

7.1.3.  Every poor nation knows that it is watched carefully by the imperial powers to ensure that it does not deviate from its subordinate role within the global system of domination and exploitation.  Every nation knows that if it ratified the Constitution for the Federation of Earth alone, it would be economically punished for this by withdrawal of investments, recall of loans, or economic sanctions.  Witness the forty-three years of suffering that has been imposed on the Cuban people because their government attempted to take an independent course that cared about its own poor and dispossessed citizens.

7.1.4.  For this reason, a number of governments in the developing world must coordinate their efforts and plan to simultaneously ratify the Constitution. World government can easily begin with perhaps twenty-five nations simultaneously joining together to create the initial Earth Federation. Immediately such a group of nations ratifying the Constitution would become a substantially autonomous economic unit, using Earth-Currency and receiving extensive lines of credit for development from the newly created federal government.  Withdrawal of investments, recall of loans, or threat of sanctions would not matter.  The federal government would assume all international debt of these nations to be paid back in a reasonable manner at nonexploitative interest rates.

7.1.5.  Approximately twenty-five nations would immediately enter into dynamic cooperation in the use of their resources, technologies, educated leaders, and development initiatives.  Their debts would be removed under the current world order and they would receive extensive lines of credit for sustainable development based on the ability of their people to produce real wealth using finance capital, labor, and natural resources.   Corporations or industries within these nations that refuse to cooperate in the conversion to Earth Currency would be nationalized or mundialized, whichever is most appropriate.  The simple but liberating economic principles outlined in this manifesto would immediately take effect.  The increase in prosperity, creative energy, and hope would be immediately evident and contagious.

7.1.6.  There is no mystery about how to create prosperity.  Place a great deal of money in the hands of people who wish to develop projects, employ workers, procure the necessary natural resources, and buy and sell locally and regionally.  Money gets into the hands of ordinary people who then recirculate it through increased consumption and the purchase of services. There is no reason to take anything away from the already rich or oppose the policies of the World Bank or corporations operating outside the initial Federation.

7.1.7.  Those who are rich may retain their wealth.  What is eliminated is their ability to exploit others to make themselves richer.  The World Bank may continue to offer its development loans to poor countries of the world. But who will want these loans when immense lines of credit are available to individuals, nations, and businesses at the cost of only an accounting fee? Exploitative interest rates are eliminated and with it the ability of those already rich to exploit and dominate the poor who need money for development purposes.

7.2.  Second, large scale technology transfer and infusion of fertile ideas and techniques for sustainable development can be activated through common sense revisions of current intellectual property rights laws.  As the writings of economists Michael Chossudovsky, David Korton, Vandana Siva, J.W. Smith and others have shown, one of the ways the wealthy world retains neo-colonial monopoly control on the global economy is through intellectual property rights, which have become a fundamental tenant in WTO regulations.  The simple device of allowing any patented idea to be used for the payment of a reasonable royalty fee would make all ideas and techniques available to humankind for sustainable development purposes.

7.2.1.  Through its system of absolute intellectual property rights, the current world system keeps the developing world in a low-tech condition, forcing them to sell their natural resources to the wealthy world to be there manufactured and sold back to the developing countries at a profit. It keeps monopoly control over marketable ideas and innovations, thereby belying its ideology of “free trade.”  Versions of this policy have been going on since the advent of colonialism.  They keep life-saving drugs from reaching the AIDS stricken countries of Africa.  They keep seeds and key agricultural necessities profitably expensive while poor farmers starve worldwide.

7.2.2.  The simple change of allowing any idea to be used if a reasonable royalty is paid, eradicates these intellectual property rights monopolies and liberates the poor of the world for efficient, rapid development.  This modified system of intellectual property rights would also activate the regional economies of the world with a tremendous influx of new techniques and ideas.  Scarcity would be ended and prosperity rapidly created.

7.3.  The third simple principle for rapidly creating global equity and prosperity involves massive programs of education and empowerment of populations throughout the world through use of airwaves and other forms of communication for free global education on behalf of rapid sustainable development.  Just as the present world system involves a monopoly on money creation and lending, and a monopoly on advanced technologies and techniques, so the present world order involves a monopoly on media and communications.  The governments of the world have given away the airways and media for communication to private, profit-making interests. The electromagnetic spectrum from TV to radio to satellite communications is largely used for commercial purposes, for enrichment of private, profit-making corporations, and for propaganda on behalf of the current world system.  These should be used for sustainable development and global free education that this requires.

7.3.1. We have seen that a massive worldwide educational effort is essential to rapid sustainable development and the elimination of poverty and unsupportable population growth.  The technologies and means of communication are available to achieve this.  All that is required is government that serves the needs and interests of all the world’s citizens and not government, as in the United States, that serves the needs and interests of the big corporations. 

7.3.2.  Use of the available technologies and means of communication for rapid sustainable development would activate regional and local economies.  People would learn sanitation techniques, family planning techniques, literacy, foreign languages, water purification techniques, techniques for generating nonpolluting forms of energy, techniques for increasing their income and quality of life.  This simple change in the use of the world’s airways and means of communication would serve as a third major step for creating universal prosperity and sustainable development.

7.4.  Fourth, simple legal steps would be taken fostering the empowerment of regional and local economies where money is retained within the locality and not siphoned off to foreign banks or corporations.  Regions would produce as many goods and services for themselves as reasonably possible and economically feasible, and they import only what is necessary to complement the local economies.  The amazing waste of energy and resources that now occurs in transporting goods around the world that could just as well be produced locally would cease.  Regions would employ many at good wages creating a population capable of buying goods and services and businesses would develop in response to these demands.

7.4.1.  In the United States, when a multinational “superstore” moves into a town, many local businesses begin to fold.  They cannot compete with the ability of the superstore to procure cheap clothing, food, drugs, shoes, housewares, furniture, sporting goods, hardware and nearly everything else.  The superstore may employ a few people at low wage jobs, but its profits do not remain in the community.  They are sent back to corporate headquarters and to distant investors.  The economy of the local community begins to die.  Small businesses close up and unemployment increases.

7.4.2.  This same phenomena also happen on a global scale.  A soft drink or medical drug from a multinational corporation in a developing country may be able to undersell a domestically produced soft drink or drug. But the profits from the multinational soft drink or medical drug return to wealthy first world investors and are not recirculated within the local or regional economy. Very often, the developing country is even prevented from producing its own drink or medical drug by intellectual property rights regulations. These global monopolies strangle regional economies. 

7.4.3.  The principle of health for economies, and for sustainable development of prosperity in developing countries, is to activate regional and local markets.  This includes raising wages, producing locally whatever can be produced to supply the needs of the population, and creating a healthy interchange of supply and demand that keeps money circulating within the region.

7.4.4. The Earth Federation is not opposed in principle to “globalization.” Converting the world system to democratic federal world government is maximal globalization.  But globalization of economics without the globalization of democratic world law has simply extended the current system of chaos and violence worldwide.  Without world law, imperial nations and gigantic corporations exploit and dominate the poor of the world in their own self-interest.  We need global planning for the future, global monitoring of the environment, and global trade where appropriate for the benefit of everyone involved. Globalization without democratic planning, regulation, or concern for the common good will necessarily result in the viciousness and corruption that we see everywhere in today’s “globalized” economy.

7.4.5. Today, the “anti-globalization movement” is providing vital resistance to this world system of economic domination and exploitation. Many of the individuals and organizations that participate in this movement are committed to democracy, justice, the ending of poverty, environmental protection, and human rights.  They play a vital role in exposing the terrible legacy of economic globalization with respect to all these issues.  However, the central focus of this movement is that it is against globalization. 

7.4.6.  To be against all “globalization” is to be against planning for the future of the Earth.  It is to be against the universal rule of law on Earth. They are “anti,” without having a clear vision of how the world can be transformed into a civilized world order.  Vague notions of justice, democracy, or protecting human rights without a global, democratic, legal mechanism for achieving these are futile.  The Earth Constitution gives humanity the specific political and economic means to achieve these goals.

7.5.  Fifth, the market may be an efficient way of determining prices for many things, but certainly not for wages.  There must be equal pay for equal work at good wages throughout the Earth Federation.  Economist J. W. Smith points out that the rate of advantage of equally productive but unequally paid workers doing the same work is exponential, not arithmetical.  Take the example of a worker in the developing world  paid one U.S. dollar an hour for producing an item that is identical to the item produced by a first world worker making ten dollars per hour.  Since the cost of labor largely determines the prices of these items, the developing world item sells for one dollar while the first world item for ten dollars.  How many of the developing world items can the first world worker buy after working ten hours?  How many items of the first world worker can the developing world worker buy after working ten hours?  The rate of advantage in this simple example is 100 to 1 (Smith 2005a, Chapter One).

7.5.1.  Under this rate of advantage there is no possibility of the developing world ever catching up with the first world through activation of its economies or sale of natural resources.  The exponential rate of advantage ensures what has in fact been the case for decades: billions of dollars in wealth are transferred annually from the poorest segment of humanity to the wealthiest segment of humanity.  The poor under our current world order are getting poorer and the rich are getting richer.

7.5.2.  Markets have a useful but limited role in human economies.  They are not and cannot be the solution to all problems as the imperial economic ideology has it.  Markets can produce many (not all) goods and services efficiently.  But essential services like water, electricity, and health care are much better served by good government.  Nor can markets ensure just or equitable distribution of services or wealth.  And they cannot ensure sustainable development that involves conceptions of the common good and the welfare of future generations. 

7.5.3.  Markets are blind to all noncommercial values such as community, human rights, sustainability, equity, justice, and peace.  Markets, as we know so well, will produce weapons of war if there is a profit to be made from this, or weapons of mass destruction.  Markets (like big business) are morally blind and must be tempered by democratic, non-commercial values that are necessarily built into good government.  Markets are not based on the moral principle of unity-in-diversity.

7.5.4.  The principle of equal pay for equal work at decent, living wages will place cash in the hands of the poor in the developing counties and will produce an activated local economy while at the same time increasing global equity.  As we said earlier, there is no need to appropriate the accumulated wealth of the rich to solve the global crises facing humanity. All that is necessary is to eliminate the means for the rich to continue to accumulate more wealth through exploiting those already poor.  The exploitative, monopoly features of the current system listed here perpetuate both the wealth of the rich and the poverty of the poor and make global equity and sustainable development an impossibility. 

7.6.  Sixth, economically stable and equitable laws will be enacted to promote worldwide land reform so that the land and its wealth can be returned to the people of Earth. The exploitation of the poor by the few who now control the quality land and resources of the world will rapidly come to an end. In general, land and resources will be recognized as belonging to the people of the Earth and need to be legally protected for the common good. Land and resources will be seen as the global commons and private property will be recognized for land use by individuals, governments, and businesses. That is, property rights will be converted from “absolute rights” to “conditional rights.”

7.6.1. Land is provided by nature, not built by labor, thus all natural resources are nature’s heritage for all. Applying Henry George’s concept of exclusive title to nature’s wealth restructured to conditional title (society collecting the land rent) instantly collapses those exclusive (monopoly) values to zero. The price of homes are the cost of building a house and the price of businesses will be the facilities themselves. Monopoly values have been converted to use-values owned by true producers. Just as with land, today’s technology, money, and communications monopolies are subject to the same efficiency gains. [This paragraph, not submitted at the 7th Session of Parliament, will be expanded and submitted to the 9th Session.]

7.6.2.  The effectiveness of careful organic farming, with composting, crop rotation, and ecologically sound planting and harvesting has been repeatedly demonstrated.  These farming methods produce many times the food per acre now produced by commercial agribusiness while conserving the soil and eliminating the pollution cased by chemical fertilizers.  They are best done by small farmers who own and care about their own land and have a stake in its preservation.  Even with the diminished quality farmland in the world today, a global program of population reduction, effective farming methods, and activated local economies can easily end hunger and create a world sufficient for all. 

7.6.3.  Such programs of land reform have been attempted in individual countries such as Guatemala in the early 1950s, Chile in the early 1970s, Nicaragua in the 1980s, Cuba in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, and Venezuela at the beginning of this century.  In every case the United States has destroyed or attempted to destroy the government promoting the land reform.  This has been a global policy of the imperial center since the Second World War. 

7.6.4.  All good examples of economic health and common sense must be destroyed so that the world believes there is no alternative to global economic monopolies dominated by multi-billion-dollar corporations and protected by the military might of First World nations.  The lethal combination of our present world system of sovereign nation-states (dominated as always by the imperial centers) and ruthless global corporations cannot but act to enforce a regime of global domination and exploitation. These consequences are built into these global institutions of the past five centuries.

7.6.5.  Only democratically legislated law, enacted by a World Parliament representing all the people and nations of Earth, can formulate and effectively carry out a planetary policy of land reform.  Such reform is badly needed not only to activate the local and regional economies of the world, but to end exploitation of the poor by the rich, to conserve the soil while reducing erosion and pollution, and to increase food production, rapidly ending hunger on Earth.

7.7.  Seventh, the federal world government will engage in large-scale employment of the unemployed or underemployed millions in developing counties in a multitude of projects directed toward sustainable development and the activating of regional and local economies.  These projects will certainly include replanting the depleted forests of the Earth, restoring the soil and grazing lands to integrity, building schools and health care centers, creating efficient, low cost sanitation and water systems, converting military installations and weapons factories to the production of peaceful goods and services, and converting the energy sources of the world to sustainable, non-polluting forms of water, wind, solar, and hydrogen energy. 

7.7.1.  The condition of the developing world today is similar to that of the United States during the great depression of the 1930s.  There is massive unemployment and hence no money to circulate within economies.  The U.S. government had the vision to create vast public works projects and put hungry people back to work. 

7.7.2.  The Earth Federation will undertake similar initiatives, thereby not only putting people to work and activating their economies, but creating the infrastructure necessary to a prosperous sustainable development.  The nexus of global crises are too advanced and the threat to the future of the world too extreme to sit passively by and hope for private development efforts alone to succeed.  The world needs sanitation and water systems now.  It needs to restore the damaged environment now.  It needs to deal with the crisis of sickness and disease now.  It needs to restore soil, grazing land, fisheries, and forests now.  It needs family planning and population reduction efforts now.  It needs education for the masses now.  It needs to employ the unemployed millions now. 

7.7.3.  As one of the great speeches before the 1992 Rio Environmental Summit expressed this principle: “tomorrow is too late.”  The global crises outlined here are upon us and action must be taken immediately to create a decent, prosperous, and equitable world order.  We are at the crossroads of human existence.  One road leads to certain disaster.  The other to an equitable, free, just, and peaceful world order.

8.  Where do we go from here?  A call to the people and nations of the Earth

8.1.  That earlier manifesto of 150 years ago demanded that “workers of the world unite!”  The manifesto of the Earth Federation demands that the poor, the disenfranchised, and all decent people of the world unite. The problem is not simply exploitation and dehumanization of workers, although today this continues in sweat shops, extensive use of child labor, and starvation wage employment practices worldwide.  The problem is the nexus of global economics and sovereign nation-states that continues the global system of domination and exploitation from generation to generation. 

8.2.  At least a billion human beings fall outside this system of worker exploitation.  They are not “workers” needed by the profit-seeking institutions, and are of no use to the imperial nation-states, and therefore are considered extraneous, useless, mere surplus to be allowed to rot and die in their hell of poverty or to be slaughtered as acceptable “collateral damage” through carpet bombings of their countries.  The poorest of the world are of no concern to the world order as it now exists.  It is they who are uniting for a new world order.  It is the poor majority who are the hope of the world.

8.3.  The poor majority who are the central hope for the world — and those caring and awakened people and nations who act in solidarity with them in their struggle to create a decent world order for themselves and their children.   We are all made “poor” by the current world order.  We are all degraded, manipulated, and shamed through our complicity with the rule of corrupt wealth and power.  We are all faced with the historical, practical, and moral demand to save the Earth from further destruction and create a decent, sustainable world order before it is too late.

8.4.  Why do the wealthy of the world and their minions in government fear us so much?  They know we are not interested in taking their wealth from them.  We are only interested in simple changes that remove global monopolies and eliminate the ability of private organizations and nations to continue to enrich themselves at the expense of the poor.  Yet this very fact fills them with dread.

8.5.  The thought of a world of equity and justice, where the few have lost their ability to dominate and exploit the rest, terrifies those who have never worked for a living but have only ruled, dominated, and exploited. They are mortified by the thought of civilized world order where the rich actually have to live in equity and justice with the poor, where special privileges have been abolished, where freedom and peace mean there can be no more military domination of the powerful over the rest, where no more profits can be reaped from selling weapons, pillaging, or defrauding the poor in a world of chaos and violence.

8.6.  It is difficult for the average decent person to imagine how corrupt are most of the captains of industry, military, and government in today’s world.  The ruling elite in business, military, and government know only power relations, influence pedaling, and corrupt deals with super-rich corporate executives, arms merchants, drug kingpins, regional warlords, dictators, torturers, shady financial investors, or slimy politicians.  They have only contempt for the poor or ordinary decent people.  The chaos of the political and economic worlds is so deep under global capitalism and the nation-state system that any talk of a decent world order based on universal values sounds like naive gibberish to their ears.  Yet they fear us because they know that decent people everywhere respond positively to the Earth Constitution designed to create planetary justice, peace, and prosperity.

8.7.  Is “human nature” so corrupt that government, military, or business will always attract to themselves twisted people who without remorse are willing to destroy human beings, our environment, and the welfare of future generations in their lust for wealth and power?  Most ordinary human beings are honest and decent.  The corruption is fostered by the institutions dominating our world.  Fragmented institutions often attract fragmented and corrupt human beings to positions of power. Both the system of territorial nation-states and the global economic system are founded on immoral self-interest, the drive for domination, and structures of greed and exploitation. They cannot in principle be reformed to create a decent world order for they are fragments predicated on naked power, chaos, and violence. 

8.8.  Fragments result in unredeemed conflict and power relationships. The Constitution for the Federation of Earth is founded on the fundamentally different principle of unity-in-diversity.  Diversity (of interests, races, ethnicities, religions, nations, cultures, and individuals) is protected and legitimated through the moral unity recognizing all equally as citizens and members of the Earth Federation.  Diversity within the moral unity created by the Earth Federation does not corrupt persons into violence and greed as does fragmentation. 

8.9.  We are all one as citizens of the Earth Federation and members of the human race.  We have historical, practical, and moral obligations to one another, to our Earth, and to future generations.  Under the Earth Federation, this unity-in-diversity is both a moral and a legal category creating, for the first time in history, government and business operating according to morally legitimate principles.  Who will lead humanity into a new, morally decent world order premised on the principle of unity-in-diversity?

8.10.  Solidarity with the Earth Federation is not likely to come from the comfortable classes of the First World nations who are conditioned to be passive, self-interested consumers and without compassion or concern for their fellow human beings around the planet.  Solidarity with the Earth Federation will not come from the imperial nations or the multinational corporations who now dominate the world in their ignorance and corruption. Unity with the Federation can only come from the poor, those in solidarity with the poor, and those rare governments who have some concern for their own people and the future of the Earth. 

8.11.  The poor of the world must organize under the banner of the Earth Federation!  They must educate themselves, raise funds for educating others, send delegations to their leaders, write editorials, get on radio shows, hold town meetings, and hold ratification campaigns.  Localities, villages, towns and cities may commit to the Earth Federation.  There must be active pressure placed upon the governments of poor countries, and upon all decent governments.  Chapters of the World Constitution and Parliament Association must be organized, and members must join the rapidly growing Earth Federation.  The Constitution for the Federation of Earth must be studied and translated into ever more languages.

8.12.  We must urge poor nations and their populations (and those nations and world citizens in solidarity with them) to work together and coordinate a simultaneous ratification of the Constitution by many nations. The effect on the world would be electrifying.  Before the imperial powers and the multinational corporate criminals could even think in terms of blockades or sanctions, other poor nations would be clamoring to join the Federation.  A truly new world order recognizing the equality and right to prosperity of all human beings would be unmistakable and irresistible. 

8.13.  The majority of countries would immediately see that they have nothing to lose and everything to gain from joining the Earth Federation. Soon the entire world would perceive that at last true liberation for humanity and the Earth was at hand.  The tiny minority of powerful imperial leaders, bankers, and corporate executives who oppose this order would be overwhelmed by public pressure and before long the final operative stage of the Earth Federation would be reached and there would be peace, prosperity, freedom, and justice on the Earth.  We do not mean a “utopia.”  We mean a practical, workable, decent world order for the first time in history.

8.14.  It is important to see that the first twenty-five nations ratifying the Constitution would not be forming another power block like North America or the European Union.  If there were to be an African Union within the current world order, this would change nothing.  It would simply create another military and economic block to struggle with Europe, Japan, China, the U.S. or other power centers.  The world would remain in fragmentation and chaos.  However, an African Union, or a Latin American Union, could easily be magna-regions within the Federation of Earth.

8.15.  The initial Earth Federation is something truly new in human history, for it invites in all and excludes no one.  It recognizes every human being as a citizen of the Earth Federation and invites every nation to be a member of the Federation with all the rights, privileges, and benefits that apply under the Constitution.  It would take nothing from those already rich and oppose no one militarily or economically.  It would end exploitation of nation by nation and person by person.  And it would be clear to the world that the Earth Federation was the only institution that could address the nexus of global crises that threaten our extinction on Earth.

8.16.  Our task is to communicate this message to the world.  Our task is for the poor nations and peoples of the world to unite and organize behind the Earth Federation.  The Federation is not an ideal we are promoting but a dynamic reality from which we live.  Our every thought, breath, and movement must emanate from the living reality of the Earth Federation. Every human being must know and ratify the Constitution.

8.17.  The poor majority of our planet must take the initiative to liberate themselves and their world.  They must ratify the Constitution personally and collectively. The poor nations of the world (and those nations in solidarity with them) must act in unison and ratify the Constitution collectively.  The Earth Federation will grow like wildfire until there is one citizenship, one system of justice, one World Parliament, one bill of rights, and one world order of peace with justice.  Then, and only then, can the religious or the nonreligious affirm the final meaning of history as one world under God, Allah, Brahman, the holy cosmos, this sacred Earth, or this just world order.

8.18.  All people on Earth are already citizens of the Earth Federation. For the only sovereignty is that of the people of Earth.  We are already members of the new world order of equity, freedom, justice, and peace.  If we act from this living reality, we will successfully pass the crossroads of imminent death and destruction.  To unite under the banner of the Earth Federation is to act for the liberation of humanity, this precious Earth, and future generations.  

8.19.  The poor, the dispossessed, and all decent people of the world must unite!  We have nothing to lose but our misery, our chains of economic and political domination!  For we are all victims in this present world of injustice and violence.  We are all made poor and disenfranchised by this current world order.  We are all already citizens of the Earth Federation! In the darkness of these times, we know that tomorrow is too late, and the time is now.  A new dawn is rising for the world.  Liberation for humanity is at hand. Citizens of the world unite!

Long Live the Earth Federation!!!

“Man Is Greater than He Thinks”

Transcending Limitations of the “Human All-Too Human”

Glen T. Martin

21 May 2022

Human beings flourish in idealism, in symbolism, and imagination.  This astonishing ability, bequeathed to us by the ground of Being through the process of cosmic evolution, could almost entirely serve to distinguish human beings as qualitatively different from even the highest animals.  Our minds are not only not limited to our bodies and our immediately perceptual environment; our minds overflow the immediate perceptual environment on every side, in terms of a memory that itself draws on symbolism and imagination, a present rippling with possibilities and alternatives on every side, and a future that can even transcend the Cosmos and envision alternative kingdoms beyond this world, whether the Pure Land of the Buddhists or the Heaven of the Christians. In every case our human imaginations are bursting this world of present actuality wide open and envisioning a plethora of rich possibilities.

I have previously argued on several occasions that our “utopian” imagination gives us real and objective possibilities, because we are constituted as temporalized creatures who embrace the future under a horizon of imaginative possibilities that are necessarily transformative and can be experienced as morally imperative. The utopian imagination animates our lives far beyond our mere physical and empirical existence (see Martin 2018 and 2021).

Since the famous Axial Period in human history (approximately 800 to 200 BCE) when humans first achieved sufficient self-awareness to pursue objective knowledge and understanding of the whole Earth and Cosmos, we have been able to think in terms of the whole and our integral relation to the whole.  This was clearly done by the great thinkers of the Western tradition, from Plato and Aristotle through Aquinas and Eckhart to the rise of science in the 17th century.

Through the use of the symbolic imagination in the form of advanced mathematics, Galileo and the other 17th century scientists and philosophers began to discover the mechanics of the cosmic order. They used abstract mathematical equations in conjunction with a hypothetical method (called an experiment) that imagined the way the world might be and then devised models and experimental situations to confirm their hypotheses. Neither knowledge nor the progress of knowledge would be possible without this symbolic imagination.

This immense breakthrough in our human ability to understand the Cosmos clearly required tremendous symbolic and imaginative power, and it is no accident that the major 17th century thinkers, from Descartes to Leibniz to Spinoza to Kepler and Galileo were all mathematicians. Yet the great paradox of that century and the next was that they discovered no place for “mind” in the universe that they were unveiling. The universe appeared to be a gigantic mechanism of “bodies in motion” governed by inexorable mechanical laws (such as inertia, momentum, and gravitation) that was strictly “physical” in its composition. Descartes had said that mind was a different kind of substance from matter, but the early-modern cosmologists did not discover it in their experiments. In his book Leviathan that appeared in 1651, Thomas Hobbes concluded that only matter exists. The mind, he said, is nothing but the brain, and the brain can be explained as merely the motion of extremely tiny atoms within the human head.

As science continued to progress through the 18th and 19th centuries, with Charles Darwin reporting discovery of the principle of evolution in 1859, human beings appeared to shrink in significance from a creature once thought to be “made in the image of God” to a tiny, merely physical creature within a vast universe, a creature whose existence was not significantly different from innumerable planets and animals coming and going over many millions of years within “the immense journey” of evolution. We appeared so cosmically insignificant, no wonder we clung to what was familiar: family, nation, race, etc.

It ultimately took the 20th and 21st century revolutions in scientific theory to restore mind to the Cosmos where it belongs. Max Planck in 1900 and Albert Einstein in 1905 launched paradigm revolutions in quantum physics and relativity physics that have entirely altered our conception of the Cosmos.  It is now clear to most scientific cosmologists that mind is an integral feature of all that exists, and, for many cosmologists, it is the primary category for characterizing reality—all energy forms are ultimately mind, and “matter” is simply the way the energy of mind appears to us in our everyday lives (see, e.g., Kafatos and Nadeau 1990 or Laszlo 2017). It is not our physical bodies that are now primary, but mind, integral to the entire Cosmos, within which we participate, and to which we are responsible.

What we mean by “mind” includes that central capacity to transcend immediate perceptual existence with the symbolic imagination. As we have seen, this imagination is not simply reducible to loose ramblings of consciousness when dreaming or sleeping, but rather fundamental to scientific methodology and every other sphere of human existence, from religion, art, culture, politics, investigation, love, and justice to the very idea of progress. Ernst Cassirer, in his Essay on Man (1944) develops these ideas in some depth.

Yet, despite all this tremendous progress that human beings have made in understanding ourselves and our Cosmos in the past 125 years, for most people, the utopian symbolism of mind links to some fragment, some ethnocentric division of humanity—my family, my nation, my religion, my race, my culture, my language, etc.  Here lies the great potentially omnicidal failure of the 21st century. Despite the many thinkers who have underlined the universality of the human project—that we are one species, within one planetary ecosystem, within one universal civilization, within one absolutely holistic Cosmos—neither the mass media nor the ordinary citizen anywhere on Earth has internalized this universality.

I have often argued that the system of militarized “sovereign” nation-states and the system of privatized greed called capitalism serve as structural impediments to this identification. Yet most basically the problem is us—it is our “unholy” imaginative limitations, our refusal to look inside to discern the utopian call that is always present there. We need to see our planet as a whole, humanity as a whole, and civilization as a whole if we are to properly exercise our utopian imagination for life and goodness and future generations rather than for pathology, evil, and death. The utopian imagination is a generic feature of humanity that operates at any and all levels of abstraction.

I can have personal utopian ambitions for myself, family, church, and country or other identifications (like my race). But none of these will redeem and save humanity and future generations. And insofar as these limited identifications are not transcended, they create only more evil and destructive consequences. My particular utopian projections for my life, family, church, or nation will not disappear when we ascend to a universalized understanding. But they must be integrated into a utopian vision for the whole. It is the greatness and the destiny of humanity to integrate with the holism of the universe and actualize that holism in our concrete lives and institutions.

Otherwise, our lives and institutions fragment and distort. They set nations, families, and religions against one another. Only integrating the particular into the whole of humanity will liberate and redeem all particular ideals. Ultimately, we may move to the wholeness of the Cosmos itself, and to the wholeness of the ground of Being or God. How do my particular utopian ideals integrate with the whole of existence? The universe and its foundations are one. Humanity is one and is integral to the oneness of our planetary life and the oneness of the Cosmos. We can grow to this insight slowly and deliberately, or it can come as a flash, but it must come. 19th century thinker Friedrich Nietzsche declared that our common human task was to transcend what was “human all too human” about us, our institutions, and our visions.

The utopian imagination is ultimately a product of the Cosmos become conscious of itself in us. Thinkers as diverse as Sri Aurobindo (1973, 49) and Errol E. Haris (1988, 104-5) have drawn this conclusion. We are living incarnations of the divine ground of Being. Holism and the utopian imagination go together. Only the holistic vision of a liberated unity in diversity can redeem us. We do not need to experience a “mystical union” with the whole in order to appropriate this universality. We simply need to make the kind of actions that lead to personal growth. For authentic personal growth inevitably leads to this universality. Educators as well as governments worldwide need to encourage personal growth to universality.

For those few who are privileged enough to experience mystical union with the whole, this experience must eventuate in utopian ideals and actions in the concrete world. To remain in a kind of Buddhistic non-action and non-attachment is not enough. The integrated relational whole must become actualized in human reality on planet Earth through utopian-oriented actions, systems, and organizations. No nation on Earth today operates from this universality. Ultimately, the only avenue for authentic realization of the utopian imperative is world federation.

The Constitution for the Federation of Earth concretizes our utopian imagination relating to peace, human rights, justice, and environmental sustainability. It embodies these symbolic dimensions of our fragmented human selfhood and focuses these values like a laser beam on to a world system that persons can realize here and now. It gives humanity a World Parliament in which every member has taken a pledge in the service of humanity and within which most of its members will have accomplished that transcendence and personal growth that can make this service a reality. It gives us a judiciary, administration, enforcement system, and human protection system second to none among the various visions that have been proposed for a new world system.

The Earth Constitution is based explicitly on the principle of unity in diversity, which is the principle of integral wholeness in both the Cosmos and in human affairs. It does not abolish the nations, races, cultures, or religions but embraces them all in a unity that in its very nature transcends them all. Despite the carefully designed features of the Constitution directed toward preventing abuse and perversion of its democratic processes, the essential insight here is that it is unlikely that these features will be necessary. For in ascending to affirmation of the Earth Constitution, human beings are embracing their cosmic destiny. They are truly uniting in mutual respect and dignity. Our pettiness, hate, and fear will be replaced by expansiveness, love, and courage.

Now in the early 21st century, we are at the cusp, at the turning point between immanent self-destruction and a redeeming human liberation. What is demanded of us is ascent to universality, to harmony with the holistic structure of the Cosmos and everything within it. This ascent, in concrete terms, lies with ratification of the Earth Constitution. However, the tragedy worldwide today is that people lack the courage, insight, and understanding to make the step to wholeness.

There is a reactionary sickness worldwide, an irrational escape into arbitrary embrace of fragments such as my possessions, my race, my nation, or my religion. Rather than expanding and uniting within the embrace of our common humanity and divinely inspired destiny, people are running away, clinging ever more fanatically to localized identifications and systems. This is the great terror (and sin) of our times—that people lack the courage and vision to lift themselves into the redeeming embrace of the holism of humanity, the Earth, and the Cosmos, the first step of which would be to ratify the Earth Constitution.

In conclusion to this essay, allow me to quote 20th century philosopher Eric Gutkind summarizing the challenge we face:

Our main sin today is that we do not ultimately accept our human destiny…. We are the “principle of ascending” in the universe. We ourselves are such an envelop that surrounds nature…. Man’s destiny is paradoxical, and that means—in religious terms—that something extremely great is being delegated to us, not something that is “reasonable.” The demand made on Man seems to be superhuman, and yet it must be accepted. It is what the great philosopher Kant called: the dignity of Man. We are looking for something petty, something practical, something to give us shelter. We must realize that our present situation is by no means petty. It brings us to the awareness that Man is greater than he thinks. (1969, 94).

Works Cited

Aurobindo, Sri (1973). The Essential Aurobindo. Ed. Robert McDermott. New York: Schocken Books.

Cassirer, Ernst (1944). An Essay on Man: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Human Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Constitution for the Federation of Earth. Online at www.earthconstitution.world and www.wcpa.global. In print with the Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Appomattox, VA, 2010 and 2014.

Gutkind, Eric (1969). The Body of God: First Steps Toward an Anti-Theology. Eds. Lucie B. Gutkind and Henry LeRoy Finch. New York: Horizon Press.

Harris, Errol E. (1988). The Reality of Time. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kafatos, Means and Robert Nadeau (1990). The Conscious Universe: Part and Whole in Modern Physical Theory. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Laszlo, Ervin (2014). The Self-Actualizing Cosmos: The Akasha Revolution in Science and Human Consciousness. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

Martin, Glen T. (2018). Global Democracy and Human Self-Transcendence: The Power of the Future for Planetary Transformation. London: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Martin, Glen T. (2021). The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet. Independence, VA: Peace Pentagon Press.

Human Spirituality and the Earth Constitution

Glen T. Martin

May 2022

This essay attempts to show the key role of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth in the actualization of human spirituality and the grounding of our physical existence within the depths of our sacred Cosmos. Out of a wealth of literature regarding spiritual growth that might be drawn upon, it uses the seven chakras of ancient Indian spirituality as a template for its argument. The Earth Constitution is not only a political and economic tool for enhancing human liberation. It also makes possible spiritual realization.

Scholars of mysticism and spirituality such as Ken Wilber have correlated stages of human spiritual development and growth among the many thinkers who have attempted to map out these stages. Wilber himself draws a correlation between the work of Western psychologists Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan and the stages of self-realization depicted by the ancient Eastern wisdom of the seven chakras (2006). An entire discipline studying the higher stages of consciousness has developed called “transpersonal psychology.”

All the world’s great traditional religions cultivated spirituality and the process of growth and awakening to the ground of Being (God, Brahman, Allah, Tao, Dharmakaya, etc.). There have been many different practices and kinds of meditation developed to aid the process of growth and awakening. The chakras are one set of metaphors, one model among many—all of which have broad similarities and resonances with one another. There are many paths up the mountain—many ways to God.

In the imagery of the seven chakras there is a purpose built into the fundamental energy of the cosmos and its manifestation in human physical, mental, and spiritual existence. That purpose involves a self-aware creature who can harmonize with the whole and express the deep consciousness of the whole through its rhythmic and harmonic living. This is the goal of human development and human history.

Spiritual teacher Anodea Judith, for example, links the developmental psychology of Abraham Mazlow with the seven chakras of Eastern thought (2004). She finds that the Root Chakra (physiologically located as the human tailbone or tip of the spine and hence the physical energy that connects us with the sacred Earth upon which we walk and live) connects with Maslow’s lowest level of human physiological needs. The second chakra, called the Sacral Chakra, includes the human sexual organs and stomach, which she links with Maslow’s “safety needs” (that is we need not only food, water, etc., but security and immediate physical well-being, including pleasure and physical satisfactions).

Our third, “Solar Plexus Chakra,” centers on the solar plexus associated with Maslow’s “belonging needs.” We need to be accepted as part of a community where we belong and are respected and recognized. The center of our body corresponds to our need for centeredness in the community and the connection between ourselves and the energies of the Cosmos. The fourth chakra is the Heart Chakra, which Judith links to Maslow’s level of self-esteem needs. The heart is connected with love, compassion, and forgiveness and with our ability to love not only others but ourselves, to emerge from selfish and isolated egoism into compassionate relations with ourselves and the world.

The fifth chakra is the Throat Chakra, normally associated with language, self-expression, and communication. Judith relates this to Maslow’s next higher level of “self-actualization.”  We actualize ourselves through our communication, our speech and actions within our human, planetary, and cosmic worlds. Above the throat chakra is the Third Eye Chakra, the eye in the center of the forehead that opens to the depths and mystery of the cosmos that gave birth to us and to which we return. 

The seventh chakra is the Crown Chakra at the top of the head. Here is where the brain and the nervous system open to the cosmic intelligence and the divine Atman (the deep self that is identical with Brahman, God, the deep, unsayable oneness and selfhood of the cosmos).  Judith links these two highest chakras with Maslow’s highest need that is called “self-transcendence.” We transcend beyond ego to a transpersonal harmony with all of existence and the ground of Being.

The purpose of living is not to leave the lower chakras behind, since we are microcosms of the macrocosm, as many ancient Greek philosophers also affirmed. The purpose is to link the earth harmoniously with the depths of spirit and the cosmos.  The purpose is live fully in this incredibly wonderful body that has been gifted to us upon this marvelously wonderful Earth that is our planetary home, a home inseparable from the cosmic energy of the evolving whole.

For most of human history social and ethical thinkers focused on the individual person in his or her quest for spiritual growth and inner illumination. There was very little critical analysis of society, its assumptions and power dynamics, until about the 19th century when critical thinkers began to realize that the self-justifying rhetoric of those who governed societies could be seen as covering up social realities very different from what appeared on the surface. Today, it is taken for granted by serious thinkers that critical social analysis is fundamental to our attempts to seek truth, justice, peace, protection of human rights, or any other ethical goals.  Despite the efforts of many reformers and good people, societies seem to elude the good and mire in corruption, greed, and injustice.

Yet even today many spiritual traditions of the world operate in a sort of vacuum, oblivious of the hidden structures of societies that foster injustice and corruption. There are thousands of books, websites, and videos directed toward self-realization, meditation, harmony of living, and spiritual self-help. There are exceptions, of course, such as liberation theology inspired by such books as Ethics and Community by Christian thinker Enrique Dussel (1988) or Gustavo Gutierez’s A Theology of Liberation (1988). Yet today, as the world careens toward complete climate collapse and/or terminal nuclear war, the forces that would transform this system of corruption and injustice are few and far between.

Many top climate scientists, such as James Gustav Speth (2008), social thinkers such as Naomi Klein (2014), or philosophers such as Joel Kovel (2007), have identified capitalism as a key component in the on-going destruction of our planetary environment, but mainstream thought remains oblivious, still talking about endless growth on a finite planet.  Nation after nation becomes mired in violence and war, and the world as a whole spends nearly two trillion US dollars annually on these horrific initiatives and those who teach about spiritual development claim to be “non-political,” perhaps assuming that the world will save itself if everyone can ascend the holarchies of chakras toward enlightenment.

They fail to realize that the world system itself defeats spiritual development and breeds violence, corruption, and environmental destruction. We need a world system beyond capitalism and beyond the militarized nation-states if we want to promote the spiritual growth of humanity. Social, economic, and international relations can foster harmony and growth or they can defeat them, and today’s chaos clearly defeats spiritual development for most of humanity.

Using Anodea Judith’s correlations above, at the most basic level people must satisfy their physical needs for food, clothing, and shelter.  Does our world-system provide this for the human population?  Not even close. The system cultivates greed, competition, corruption to the point at which 1% of the planet’s population owns 50% of its wealth while at least one billion people have no way to satisfy their basic needs.  Considering the ascending levels of chakras as correlated with satisfaction of our human needs we find that the world system, and the social systems within most nations, do not provide a framework for self-realization. 

Do global capitalism or the nation-state war-system cultivate the fourth Chakra of love, compassion, and forgiveness? Not even close. Capitalism often involves vicious competition and cultivates egoism and lack of compassion in the rich, in those successful within the “rat-race” to the top. Militarized nation-states cultivate hate, fear, paranoia of official “enemies,” and obsession with “security.” How are human beings going to reach the heart chakra level when their basic needs such as food and security are not even satisfied by this system?

In the chakra system, the Heart Chakra is the center (of ourselves and of the cosmos of which we are microcosms) with three levels above and three below. It is the fulcrum, the turning point, the key level for opening us to connection with the higher levels of being and the fullness of cosmic existence. Love, as all the great religions have taught, provides the connecting link between heaven and earth, between the ground of Being and our physical existence on Earth.

Yet our dominant world-system defeats love at every turn. It divides humanity into some 193 militarized entities in competition economically and militarily, which is intrinsically a war-relation. Human beings need a unified world-system based on our common human and planetary welfare, not a fragmented chaos of waring nation-states. This is why we need the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.  This Constitution, written by hundreds of world-citizens and some of the world’s best legal minds over a period of 23 years and completed in 1991, unites humanity under the principle of unity in diversity (see Martin 2021).

The Constitution elaborates a democratic world system of agencies and governmental organs premised on human well-being, satisfying everyone’s basic needs through a market-system regulated for the common good of all and through protecting everyone’s universal human rights. These rights include not only the right to have one’s basic needs protected, but the rights to health-care, social security, education, environmental quality, world peace and freedom from violence, as well as governmental respect and concern. Here is clearly a major key to human liberation.

Under the present world system that actively prevents spiritual growth and development for the majority of human beings we will likely destroy themselves and become extinct long before reaching spiritual illumination. Yet according to all the great religious traditions, an illumination connecting heaven and Earth is our cosmic destiny: for example, Jesus commands us to “bring the kingdom of God to Earth.” The Constitution for the Federation of Earth creates democratic world government and institutionalizes the mandate of government to care for the good of the whole within the framework of inalienable rights for each.

The Constitution therefore establishes something truly unique in human history—it unites humanity for the common good of all and future generations. Yet at the same time it brings forward something as ancient as the Greeks of the 5th century BCE—democratic theory basing society on a community of respect and concern for each within the unity in diversity of all. Here lies one fundamental key to human liberation.  We must work to ratify the Constitution for the Federation of Earth if we have any concern at all for the spiritual growth of humanity or the welfare of future generations.

As the chakra system tells us, human beings are a link between heaven and earth, a microcosm of the macrocosm, a keystone in the scheme of things. The Earth Constitution makes possible the actualizing of that linkage by restoring heart to our world system. Neither capitalism as we know it, nor militarized nation-states, have heart. They know only power, blind economic growth, greed, fear, and possible aggression. Once we have a world-system based on serving human needs, protecting human and environmental rights, and working for the good of future generations, the heart will more easily open to love, compassion, and forgiveness and lead humanity to the higher chakra realizations: genuine communication from the Throat Chakra, the opening of the Third Eye to the awesome mystery of existence, and the awakening of the Crown Chakra into our connection with the ground of Being.

The Constitution addresses satisfaction of the three lower chakras precisely because it embraces unity in diversity, the whole of humanity. This is clearly a form of love.  To a very real extent love can be institutionalized.  The heart chakra, the turning point and connecting point between the higher dimensions of energy and the physically apparent dimensions of energy must be there if we are ever to realize our cosmic destiny. The Earth Constitution is one vital key to that destiny. We need to work together now to ratify the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

Works Cited

Boswell, Terry and Christopher Chase-Dunn (2000). The Spiral of Capitalism and Socialism. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publisher.

Constitution for the Federation of Earth: with Historical Introduction, Commentary, and Conclusion by Glen T. Martin. Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2010. Also found on-line at www.earthconstitution.word and www.wcpa.global.

Dussel, Enrique (1988) Ethics and Community. Trans. Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Gilligan, Carol  (1982). In a Different Voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Gutierrez, Gustav (1988). A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation. Trans. Robert A. Krieg and James B. Nickeloff.Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Judith, Anodea (2004). Eastern Body, Western Mind: Psychology and the Chakra System as a Path to the Self. Berkeley: Celestial Arts Publisher.

Klein, Naomi (2014). This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Kohlberg, Lawrence (1984). The Psychology of Moral Development: Volume Two: The Nature and Validity of Moral Stages. San Francisco: Harper & Row Publishers.

Kovel, Joel (2007). The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World. London: Zed Books.

Martin, Glen T. (2021). The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet. Independence, VA: Peace Pentagon Press.

Maslow, Abraham (2014). Toward a Psychology of Being. Floyd, VA: Sublime Books.

Speth, James Gustav (2008). The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Wilber, Ken (2006). Integral Spirituality: A Startling New Role for Religion in the Modern and Postmodern World. Boston: Integral Books.

The False Dilemma of Unipolar vs Multipolar World Systems

Glen T. Martin

www.oneworldrenaissance.com    16 April 2022 

A common distinction in today’s mainstream debate concerning our world-system is between the idea of a “unipolar” world system versus a “multipolar” world system.  It is common for those who study international relations to characterize the USA as having been at the center of a unipolar world system for some decades. During the Cold War it was also said that the world system was “bipolar,” divided between two superpowers.

However, in the first decades of the 21st century, countries such as China, Russia, India, and Brazil have been growing in power while the economic and military domination of the USA has been diminishing. There is much talk about an emerging “multipolar” world and what this might mean for the future. What is the relation of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth to these mainstream discussions?

Mainstream scholars debate this issue within the context of their unspoken assumption that our world has no other options than unipolarity, bipolarity or multipolarity. The following quote from a recent paper exemplifies this assumption: “A return to a multi-polar world characterized by great powers rivalry is therefore more than a fable vagary or a theoretical hypothesis advanced by IR [International Relations] scholars, but it looms as a feasible and concrete scenario and a possible outcome for the near future. This shifting from unipolarity to multi-polarity could affect the stability of the future world order” (Varisco 2013).

This academic paper goes on to argue that with the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the on-going rivalry of the great powers, a multipolar world would not be any more stable or peaceful than previously. Ignored, within these discussions, is the fact our world is not merely facing the prospects of continued wars, and possible nuclear wars, as well as deep nation-state linked structural violence (Leech 2012), our world is facing planetary climate-collapse leading to possible human extinction within a planetary ecosystem that may not support higher forms of life within the next 100 years (Martin 2021).

These scholars of “international relations” limp along with assumptions about the “sovereign nation-state” system that originated at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, some three and a half centuries ago. During the 17th century the newly arising scientific world view assumed that the world was a vast machine composed of innumerable parts called “atoms.” The representatives at the Peace of Westphalia were atomists and believed it made sense to divide the political world into a system of territorially-bound, independent sovereign nation-states.

It was not until the 20th century that the entire paradigm for understanding our universe began to dramatically change. Since then, it has been understood that atomism is simply false. It has no basis in reality. The world is a whole, and is composed of fields within fields of interdependent energy-centers. The new paradigm is holistic: everything is interrelated with everything else. The concept of an independent sovereign nation-state is a conceptual illusion colonizing the minds of today’s “scholars of international relations.” No wonder the climate is collapsing, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons threatens all humanity. The world is constructed on false premises, on an illusion. Unless we can convert our thinking to conform to the holistic reality, we are truly doomed.

The Constitution for the Federation of Earth constructs a world system premised on the truth of holism. Its preamble declares that the principle of unity in diversity “is the basis for a new age when war shall be outlawed and peace prevail; when the earth’s total resources shall be equitably used for human welfare.” The entire history of humanity is contradicted in this statement. The history of humanity is continuous wars in which the “earth’s total resources” have been wasted by territorial power-blocks on armies, weapons, and perpetual war-making. How can the Constitution so blatantly contradict human history?

The answer is in the paradigm-shift to holism. The Constitution constructs the political and economic institutions of the world on reality, on holism, on the fact of unity in diversity. If human beings ever decide to wake up and get real, then we can end war and use the resources of the Earth for human welfare. As long as we insist on perpetuating our fantasies of “multipolar” or “unipolar” worlds, we will continue headed toward self-destruction and extinction as a species.

The reality on which the Constitution is based is the “unity in diversity” of holism. The world is made-up of innumerable diversities of nations, races, religions, cultures, ethnicities, and individual persons. But science has also revealed that humanity is a whole, and the ecosystem of our planet is a whole, and the entire universe is a whole (Martin 2016). If we base our institutions on the truth of holism, then the consequences will be entirely different—truly ending war, truly sharing the resources of Earth for the common good of all.

The Constitution declares that sovereignty belongs to humankind, and it declares that the world government “shall be democratic in its own structure” (Article 2). Unity here is the people of Earth and their collective right to establish a world system that works for their common welfare, and diversity here is the democratic structure. Democracy means that the diversity of each is protected (universal human rights) through the unity of the whole. The “federation” created by the Earth Constitution is democratic, not “multipolar.”

The Earth Constitution places the legitimate power of government with the whole of humanity. It is not “shared” among some arrangements of semi-sovereign nation-states. Those world federalists who believe we must begin with a weak world confederation by “strengthening the UN,” etc., are still living under the atomistic delusions long abandoned by science.  When the whole of humanity is empowered democratically their government will have great legitimate power—the power to really promote the good of the whole over the contrary tendencies of multinational corporations and waring nation-states.

Political philosopher Hannah Arendt writes that “power needs no justification, being inherent in the very existence of political communities.” What needs justification, she says, is violence, and the less democratic power any government has the more it will require illigitimate violence to rule (1969, 52-55). Power under an ecologically and humanly based world system will be qualitatively different from today’s power that is always enforced through overt, clandestine, or structural forms of violence. The world government will be powerful because it represents the whole, but it will be strictly limited because it is set up (with all sorts of limits, checks, and balances) to protect diversity, that is universal human rights (Martin 2016, Chap. 7).

Under the current fragmented world system, it is impossible to end war and it is impossible to protect our planetary ecosystem from collapse. The UN Sustainable Development Goals, for example, declare in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) document, item 16: “we affirm that every State has, and shall freely exercise, full permanent sovereignty over all its wealth, natural resources, and economic activity.” Here we have the illusory foundations of the multipolar world system. Within the UN system, the Earth’s total resources do not belong to humanity, for the common good of all and future generations, they are divided among absolute territorial entities, and often parceled out as the private property of multinational corporations. Humanity is not united, and the world is doomed to self-destruction (Martin 2021, Chap. 6).

Under this SDG document, for example, Brazil is free to continue destroying “the Lungs of the Earth.” Contrast this with Article 4 of the Earth Constitution. The fundamental resources of the Earth belong to the people of Earth. The Oceans, the atmosphere, the geological features essential to our planetary ecosystem (such as the Lungs of the Earth) all belong to the people, because humanity is a whole and the planetary ecosystem is a whole and the authority of government needs to be based on these realities, not on the illusion of some “multipolar” world system.

As deep thinkers such as Buckminster Fuller (1972) and Errol E. Harris (2000) declared: the logic of a holistic system moves the parts toward synergy and harmony, whereas the logic of a fragmented system moves the parts toward disharmony and conflict. The Earth Constitution creates a world system that is neither unipolar, nor bipolar, nor multipolar. It does not eliminate nations states but includes them within a much greater holism called the people of Earth. Our unity is our common humanity, and our diversity includes not only nations but races, religions, cultures, and billions of individual persons.

The Constitution is not pasting nations together in a strengthened UN system under the illusion that their “sovereign” status makes them somehow a primary reality determining the structure of some future federation. The Constitution creates the House of Nations to represent them as a component of human diversity that complements the all-embracing unity of a World Parliament with three houses representing the unity in diversity of the whole. “Federation,” under the Constitution means real union. The “logic of holism” is the logic of reality itself, and unless we begin governing ourselves based on realities rather than illusions, we do not have much hope for survival and flourishing.

The Earth Constitution can truly declare that under its principle of “unity in diversity” it will be able to disarm the nations and establish world peace, and it will be able to use the world’s resources for the good of all, not for the few as now—not for the good of individual nations nor the good of super-wealthy corporations and individuals. The Constitution gives us a nonviolent revolution, a paradigm-shift, that truly changes things—truly making possible a synergy and harmony that are impossible under the present dysfunctional world system.  For the sake of ourselves, our children, and the sacred divine mission bequeathed to humanity by the ground of Being, we need to ratify this Earth Constitution.

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.

Constitution for the Federation of Earth. On-line at www.earthconstitution.world and www.wcpa.global. In print with the Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Appomattox, Virginia, USA.

Fuller, Buckminster (1972). Operating Manuel for Spaceship Earth. New York: Pocket Books.

Harris, Errol E. (2000). Apocalypse and Paradigm: Science and Everyday Thinking. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Leech, Garry (2012). Capitalism: A Structural Genocide. London: Zed Books.

Martin, Glen T. (2016). One World Renaissance: Holistic Planetary Transformation through a Global Social Contract. Appomattox, VA: Institute for Economic Democracy Press.

Martin, Glen T. (2021). The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet. Independence, VA: Peace Pentagon Press.

Varisco, Andrea Edoardo (2013). “Towards a Multi-Polar International System: Which Prospects for Global Peace?” On-line at E-International Relations website: https://www.e-ir.info/2013/06/03/towards-a-multi-polar-international-system-which-prospects-for-global-peace/.

Ukraine, Global War, Empire

Glen T. Martin

9 April 2022

I find it bizarre that I should feel the need to write about this subject—yet again. Over and over, I have pointed out the nature of the integrated global war, domination, and exploitation planetary system. I have been doing this since the 1980s—during my entire career—and still most people do not get it. It does not sink in. Yet this global system impacts everything—right down to our daily lives struggling with scarcity of resources—from healthcare to housing to education to food—that is built into our system.

It is precisely for this reason that my 2021 book on our planetary climate crisis called The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet had to analyze and reveal the system yet again. One cannot understand the cascading destruction of the environment and the impotence of the so-called “UN Sustainable Development Goals” without discerning the dynamics of the world system.  We have to design a world-system in harmony with the planet’s biosphere, which the present system is not. Ukraine, and the war-system, are not separate from climate collapse or human starvation around the world. To be a “world system” is to be just that—everything that happens on Earth is interrelated and interdependent with everything else.

Hence, my book on climate collapse and its solution describes not only the seriousness and dynamics of what is happening (the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Collapse, IPCC, already does this and they do not need me to repeat their findings). My book explains why it is happening in terms of the dynamics of our world system. It should be self-evident that we cannot solve any major problem unless we understand  what has generated the problem.

 The global system is inherently a scarcity system (50% of humanity lives on the border of starvation), a war-system (99% of all nations are militarized and linked into networks of military alliances), a climate-collapse system (the ecosystem of our entire planet is rapidly descending into chaos as a consequence of this system), and a system of successive global empires (since 1945 it has suffered under the brutal empire orchestrated from Washington, DC).

Those who call themselves “evolutionary leaders,” ensconced in the UN and elsewhere, who are complicit in this system and believe that one can work within this system to somehow make things better, might balk at my characterization of the empire as “brutal.” This article will not attempt to document this brutal legacy that included, early-on, mass slaughter during the Korean War and continues unabaited to the present, but rather simply point out that the facts are there in the scholarly literature, so that those who care to see could certainly see if they cared to.

Near the beginning of the “brutal” empire, due to the work of Allied forces: “Almost every major city in North Korea was burned to the ground. Survivors sought shelter in caves….approximately 3 to 4 million Korans died, out of a population of 30 million, as did more than a million Chinese” (Stone 2012, 244). The onslaught of empire continued through the savage bombings of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (wiping out another 3 to 4 million people, 95% of them civilians), the overthrow of innumerable governments deemed hostile to the empire, the destruction of Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Yemen, and innumerable smaller places. The savagery has not abated since 9/11 and the new Global War on Terror (GWOT)—as documented, for example, by Jeremy Scahill’s monumental book Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield (2013).

A few do get it, of course, and my writings are not the only ones describing the world system. I also had to learn from penetrating and thoughtful predecessors as we all do.  With respect to Ukraine, a few voices grasp the situation clearly, such as Dr. Roger Kotila in his recent article titled “The Curse of NATO” (March 2022).

He speaks of NATO as a “curse” because it is an imperialist organization, dominated by the USA, that serves an instrument of US imperial aggression and hegemony worldwide, for example, against Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, and Syria. It is a “coalition of the willing,” that is, those who are willing to serve as lapdogs for empire. Once we understand in what ways NATO is part of the world system and its global empire, we are on the way to understanding the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

War and militarism are merely adjuncts and supports for the power of global economic domination and exploitation, a system well documented in such books as Empire with Imperialism: The Globalizing Dynamics of Neo-liberal Capitalism by Petras and Veltmeyer (2005), Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century: Globalism, Super-Exploitation, and Capitalism’s Final Crisis by John Smith (2016), and Global Imperialism and the Great Crisis: The Uncertain Future of Capitalism by Ernesto Screpanti (2014).

Some theorists and proponents of the Empire, such as Zbigniew Brzezinski in his book The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives (1998), openly followed the wisdom of empire first articulated by British economic-military strategist Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904 who declared: “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island; Who rules the World-Island commands the world” (in McCoy 2017, 213). The “World-Island” is Eurasia and the aim of the US Empire since its inception in 1945 has been to rule what happens on the World-Island. (Prior to that time the US empire was hemispheric, not planetary, as Greg Grandin documents in his book Empire’s Workshop, 2007.)

With regard to Brzezinski’s policies in action, for example in Afghanistan, historian Alfred W. McCoy writes: “he understood and rationalized the untold misery and unimaginable human suffering his strategy inflicted through ravaged landscapes, millions of refugees uprooted from ancestral villages, and countless Afghan dead and wounded” (2017, 213).  Afghanistan was only a move on the grand chessboard. Iraq was only a move on the grand chessboard. The immense suffering, the saturation bombing of peasant villages in Vietnam, amount to nothing, mere moves on the grand chessboard.

Are we getting closer to understanding the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the outraged western propaganda system reacting to this terrible “illegal invasion” with its attendant “war-crimes”?  Or do our “evolutionary leaders” still draw a blank? On April 7, 2022, Asia Times investigative reporter Pepe Escobar tweeted:

And here’s the Wall of Shame. The Empire of Resentful Cowards and Liars, who’s starving millions of Afghans to death and weaponizing the genocide in Yemen, got the UN General Assembly to suspend Russia from the Human Rights Council.

The United Nations, dominated and colonized by the ruthless empire, dutifully suspends Russia from the Human Rights Council to the applause of supposedly progressive groups throughout the West. Saudi Arabia, which systematically violates the rights of 50% of its population on a daily basis, served two terms on this council without significant protest. Military dominance is only an adjunct to the Empire’s dominance over thought. Orwell’s book, 1984, hit the nail on the head. The Western strategists of empire have learned from Nazi propaganda chief Joesph Goebbels that if the lie is big enough, and repeated often enough, it will be accepted as truth by the majority.

Ukraine has long been understood by those who follow the foibles of empire to play a key role in the grand scheme of things. In this 2009 book Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order, F. William Engdahl opens the book by reviewing the Mackinder prescription for world domination and Brzezinski’s adaption of this to the US empire (15). He goes on to quote Vladimir Putin’s well-known remarks at the 2007 Munich European Security Conference showing that Putin clearly understood the Mackinder-Brzezinski-Bush-Obama global strategy (ibid., 19-25).

So does China’s President Xi Jinping. Concerning Ukraine’s “Orange Revolution” (engineered by the CIA) and the significance of Western control of its government, Engdahl writes: “Most of Russia’s natural gas pipelines from West Siberia flowed through Ukraine on their way to Germany, France and other West European states. In military strategic terms, a non-neutral Ukraine in NATO would pose a fatal security blow to Russia” (ibid., 43).

In his subsequent 2016 book, The Lost Hegemon: Whom the Gods Would Destroy, Engdahl describes the way the CIA and State Department turned their attention to Ukraine in 2003 with the intention of installing a pro-NATO president in that country. He describes the overall strategy for the CIA and State Department: “The CIA ‘Color Revolutions’ to install pro-NATO regimes along Russia’s immediate borders, coupled with the use of Mujahideen and of Chechen Islamic Jihadists, created a strategic crisis for…chaotic Russia” [and along with other tactics] were only one, albeit major part, of a geopolitical Grand Chessboard, as Brzezinski termed it in his 1997 book by the same name” (214).

In 2014 the US helped implement a coup in Ukraine in which pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych was overthrown by far-right Neo-Nazi forces and pro-NATO lackies were installed who insisted, supported by US foreign policy, that Ukraine as a sovereign nation had to right to join NATO and place “defensive” missiles in its territory.  The US has long known that this would be absolutely unacceptable to Moscow, since nuclear armed warheads in Ukraine could reach Moscow in 3 to 4 minutes and would be nearly impossible to defend against.

But the strategy, like all local tactics in hundreds of locations around the world where the CIA is working to overthrow forces perceived hostile to the empire (this is called GWOT—the Global War on Terror), the highest level of strategy is economic. The US dollar as the world’s reserve currency and its strategic promotion out of Washington, DC, is the key. The empire is most fundamentally one of economic domination.

As Petras and Veltmeyer point out: “military and political power…create the conditions for home-based multinational corporations to take advantage….The US imperial state, both directly (via the departments of state and defense) and indirectly (via control over financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund), constitutes a directorate to manage the global system” (2005, 25-26).

Nevertheless, from within the “World-Island” both China and Russia have been emerging as major economic players (along with Iran and India).  China’s “Belt and Road” initiative and Russia’s support for the Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline under the Baltic Sea to Germany both foster Eurasian economic integration and progressively marginalize the US economic role. If Nord Stream 2 (already completed) were to begin operations, this would constitute another major economic integration of Russia and Europe, supplying large quantities of cheap energy to Europe in ways that US energy exports could not possibly match. This had to be stopped.

The Ukraine war now begins to become clear. The Empire’s strategy was to force Russia into this war. Knowing full well that NATO weapons on Russia’s borders would be intolerable to Moscow’s security interests, the US insisted to the point of triggering a Russian invasion (having refused to consider Moscow’s repeated European, mutual security peace proposals going back to 2007). The immediate consequences are a clear victory for the empire. Europe has turned away from energy dependence on Russia and is willing to pay much higher prices for US supplied energy resources, and Nord Stream 2 has been cancelled.

The propaganda war has also been won (at least in the Western world). Russia is demonized as an ”aggressor” nation and even organizations that should know better decry its “illegal” invasion (while ignoring the fact that nearly everything “the exceptional nation” does on the world stage is illegal according to international law). The UN, colonized as ever since its inception by its main donor-nation, votes to remove Russia from the Human Rights Council.

Pepe Escobar concludes his book Empire of Chaos (2014) by drawing together the empire’s strategy for both Russia and China. “From Beijing’s point of view,” he writes, “the Ukraine crisis was a case of Washington crossing every red line to harass and isolate Russia” (601). The conflict with China over the South China Sea is another component of this “crossing every red line” tactic in order to “keep the Pacific Ocean as a classic ‘American lake’” (600). Surrounding and undermining the two main rivals to control of the World Island defines much of the strategic plan. Human rights and massive death mean nothing to this system.

Again, it is not only my own books and articles that have been exposing this world system for many decades. There is a large scholarly literature doing the same, only a few books of which are cited below. As my book The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet shows, we cannot deal with the climate crisis without understanding this same world system that results in endless wars and threatens to exterminate the human species in thermonuclear holocaust.

What force on Earth makes us so incapable of understanding that the Constitution for the Federation of Earth offers the only true, practical alternative to the present world system? Only such an alternative could be achieved in time to prevent human extinction, and only if we act now, with integrity and vision, to make it happen, to ratify this Earth Constitution. Our choice is not a “multi-polar world system” in which sovereign nations respect one another and live together under international law. This is an impossibility.

This option of a “multi-polar” world, supposedly respecting international law, changes neither the structure of the war-system nor the global economics of domination and exploitation. The Earth Constitution truly remains our only credible option. Ukraine, and the immense suffering of millions of its people, means very little to the empire.  This war is merely another move on “the grand chessboard.”

Works Cited

Constitution for the Federation of Earth. Found on-line at www.earthconstitution.world and www.wcpa.global.  In print with the Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Appomattox, VA, 2010 and 2014.

Engdahl, F. William (2009). Full Spectrum Dominance: Totalitarian Democracy in the New World Order. Wiesbaden, Germany: Mine.Books.

Engdahl, F. William (2016). The Lost Hegemon: Whom the Gods Would Destroy. Wiesbaden, Germany: Mine.Books.

Escobar, Pepe (2014). Empire of Chaos. Ann Arbor, MI: Nimble Books.

Grandin, Greg (2007). Empire’s Workshop: Latin America, the United States, and the Rise of the New Imperialism. New York: Henry Holt & Co.

Kotila, Roger (2022). “The Curse of NATO.” United World: CDWG News & Views, Mar-Apr 2022, Vol. 35, No.2, pp. 10-12.

Martin, Glen T. (2021). The Earth Constitution Solution: Design for a Living Planet. Independence, VA: Peace Pentagon Press.

McCoy, Alfred W. (2017). In the Shadows of the American Century: The Rise and Decline of US Global Power. Chicago: Haymarket Books.

Petras, James and Henry Veltmeyer (2005). Empire with Imperialism: The Globalizing Dynamics of Neo-liberal Capitalism. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Publishing.

Scahill, Jeremy (2013). Dirty Wars: The World is a Battlefield. New York: Nation Books.

Screpanti, Ernesto (2014). Global Imperialism and the Great Crisis: The Uncertain Future of Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Smith, John (2016). Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century: Globalization, Super-Exploitation, and Capitalism’s Final Crisis. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Stone, Oliver and Peter Kuznick (2012). The Untold History of the United States. New York: Simon & Schuster.